How to format your references using the Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sjöberg, B.-M., 2010. Biochemistry. A never-ending story. Science 329, 1475–1476.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berenbaum, M.R., Eisner, T., 2008. Ecology. Bugs’ bugs. Science 322, 52–53.
A journal article with 3 authors
Harvey, J.A., Corley, L.S., Strand, M.R., 2000. Competition induces adaptive shifts in caste ratios of a polyembryonic wasp. Nature 406, 183–186.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stefanescu, A., Kanbach, G., Słowikowska, A., Greiner, J., McBreen, S., Sala, G., 2008. Very fast optical flaring from a possible new Galactic magnetar. Nature 455, 503–505.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sellars, C., 2011. Risk Assessment in People with Learning Disabilities. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Vermeir, K., Funk Deckard, M. (Eds.), 2012. The Science of Sensibility: Reading Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry, International Archives of the History of Ideas / Archives internationales d’histoire des idées. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
González-García, J., 2011. Sonoelectrochemical Synthesis of Materials, in: Ashokkumar, M. (Ed.), Theoretical and Experimental Sonochemistry Involving Inorganic Systems. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 107–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Amazing 3D Fractals Inspired By Faberge Eggs [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Advanced Automation System: Implications of Problems and Recent Changes (No. T-RCED-94-188). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Le, J.T., 2013. Support group for women who experience perinatal loss: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barker, K., Schwirtz, M., Foderaro, L.W., 2016. 2 Lives Collide in Fatal Night Inside Shelter. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sjöberg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Berenbaum and Eisner, 2008; Sjöberg, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berenbaum and Eisner, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Stefanescu et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0278-5846
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

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