How to format your references using the Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brooke, M., 2014. In retrospect: The Courtship Habits of the Great Crested Grebe. Nature 513, 484–485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tilman, D., Clark, M., 2014. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515, 518–522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Coyte, K.Z., Schluter, J., Foster, K.R., 2015. The ecology of the microbiome: Networks, competition, and stability. Science 350, 663–666.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gillani, N., Yasseri, T., Eynon, R., Hjorth, I., 2014. Structural limitations of learning in a crowd: communication vulnerability and information diffusion in MOOCs. Sci. Rep. 4, 6447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schulman, F.Y., 2016. Veterinarian’s Guide to Maximizing Biopsy Results. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Nagel, W.E., Kröner, D.B., Resch, M.M. (Eds.), 2012. High Performance Computing in Science and Engineering ’11: Transactions of the High Performance Computing Center, Stuttgart (HLRS) 2011. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalyebara, B., Islam, S.M.N., 2014. Optimisation Model for World Airways, in: Islam, S.M.N. (Ed.), Corporate Governance, Capital Markets, and Capital Budgeting: An Integrated Approach, Contributions to Management Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 107–153.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. This Great Infographic Breaks Down The Top 5 Misconceptions About Evolution [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Survey of the DOL Activities With Regard to Assistance Furnished to Non-Reservation Indians (No. 089737). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powell, J.E., 2013. Menasha Litigation: Wake-Up Call or Just A False Alarm (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Apuzzo, M., Schmidt, M.S., 2017. Comey Expected to Testify About His Talks With Trump. New York Times A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brooke, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Brooke, 2014; Tilman and Clark, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tilman and Clark, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gillani et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0278-5846
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

Other styles