How to format your references using the Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dissanayake, C., 2005. Global Voices of Science. Of stones and health: medical geology in Sri Lanka. Science 309, 883–885.
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnson, B.C., Melosh, H.J., 2012. Impact spherules as a record of an ancient heavy bombardment of Earth. Nature 485, 75–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Baker, P.J., Harris, S., Webbon, C.C., 2002. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers. Nature 419, 34.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kraft, N.J.B., Comita, L.S., Chase, J.M., Sanders, N.J., Swenson, N.G., Crist, T.O., Stegen, J.C., Vellend, M., Boyle, B., Anderson, M.J., Cornell, H.V., Davies, K.F., Freestone, A.L., Inouye, B.D., Harrison, S.P., Myers, J.A., 2011. Disentangling the drivers of β diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients. Science 333, 1755–1758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dooner, D.B., 2012. Kinematic Geometry of Gearing. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hinz, K., 2006. Material Flow Management: Improving Cost Efficiency and Environmental Performance, Sustainability and Innovation. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Amiruzzaman, M., Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M., Chung, Y., 2010. An Analysis of Syndrome Coding, in: Bandyopadhyay, S.K., Adi, W., Kim, T.-H., Xiao, Y. (Eds.), Information Security and Assurance: 4th International Conference, ISA 2010, Miyazaki, Japan, June 23-25, 2010. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2016. People Who Suffer Migraines Have Different Mouth Bacteria [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Postsecondary Education: College and University Endowments Have Shown Long-Term Growth, While Size, Restrictions, and Distributions Vary (No. GAO-10-393). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flores, A.T., 2013. Children, incarcerated mothers and the child welfare system: A systematic review of the literature (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, L., 1977. This great man George Sand; Infamous Woman. New York Times International Economic Survey272.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dissanayake, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Dissanayake, 2005; Johnson and Melosh, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Johnson and Melosh, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Kraft et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
ISSN (print)0278-5846
ScopeBiological Psychiatry

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