How to format your references using the Progress in Natural Science: Materials International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Progress in Natural Science: Materials International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. Lucas, Journal club. A neuroscientist explores the network of cells in the retina, Nature. 464 (2010) 11.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.S. Paterson, N. Reeh, Thinning of the ice sheet in northwest Greenland over the past forty years, Nature. 414 (2001) 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Pepe, D. Ehrenreich, M.R. Meyer, Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets, Nature. 513 (2014) 358–366.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Vendruscolo, E. Paci, C.M. Dobson, M. Karplus, Three key residues form a critical contact network in a protein folding transition state, Nature. 409 (2001) 641–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.T. Biegelman, D.R. Biegelman, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
G. Hua, H. Jégou, eds., Computer Vision – ECCV 2016 Workshops: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, October 8-10 and 15-16, 2016, Proceedings, Part III, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
M.N.H. Mohamad Said, N. Yahaya, Z. Abdullah, N.A. Atan, N.M. Zaid, The Nature of Student Group Online Interactions in Learning ICT Education, in: J.E. Luaran, J. Sardi, A. Aziz, N.A. Alias (Eds.), Envisioning the Future of Online Learning: Selected Papers from the International Conference on e-Learning 2015, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 31–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Progress in Natural Science: Materials International.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Mice Reveal The Secret of Disease Superspreaders, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Automating Medical Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.C. Dobson, Elizabeth C. Dobson Consulting and Design: A business plan for aging-in-place resources, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Dreams Taste Bittersweet As a Small Store Is Sold, New York Times. (2002) 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleProgress in Natural Science: Materials International
ISSN (print)1002-0071

Other styles