How to format your references using the Professional Psychology: Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCaffrey, R. (2007). Geophysics. The next great earthquake. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5819), 1675–1676.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grzybowski, B. A., & Whitesides, G. M. (2002). Dynamic aggregation of chiral spinners. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5568), 718–721.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yi, J. S., Du, M., & Zajac, A. J. (2009). A vital role for interleukin-21 in the control of a chronic viral infection. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5934), 1572–1576.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wiita, A. P., Perez-Jimenez, R., Walther, K. A., Gräter, F., Berne, B. J., Holmgren, A., … Fernandez, J. M. (2007). Probing the chemistry of thioredoxin catalysis with force. Nature, 450(7166), 124–127.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stidwill, D., & Fletcher, R. (2010). Normal Binocular Vision. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Murata, T., Mineshima, K., & Bekki, D. (Eds.). (2015). New Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence: JSAI-isAI 2014 Workshops, LENLS, JURISIN, and GABA, Kanagawa, Japan, October 27-28, 2014, Revised Selected Papers (1st ed. 2015, Vol. 9067). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gerasimovskaya, E. V., Stenmark, K. R., & Yegutkin, G. G. (2010). Role of Purine-Converting Ecto-Enzymes in Angiogenic Phenotype of Pulmonary Artery Adventitial Vasa Vasorum Endothelial Cells of Chronically Hypoxic Calves. In E. Gerasimovskaya & E. Kaczmarek (Eds.), Extracellular ATP and Adenosine as Regulators of Endothelial Cell Function: Implications for Health and Disease (pp. 73–93). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 20). 10 Awesome Animals That Were Hunted To Extinction By Humans Before You Were Born. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Space Shuttle: NASA’s Major Changes to Flight Hardware (No. NSIAD-88-173FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McKinney, R. W. (2017). The Optimal Balance of Liberal Education and Career Readiness in the Context of the American Promise: A Critical Analysis of the American Association of Colleges and Universities Liberal Education and America’s Promise Challenge (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins, A. (2016, December 1). In Measured Speech, Putin Calls for ‘Mutually Beneficial’ Ties With U.S. New York Times, p. A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McCaffrey, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Grzybowski & Whitesides, 2002; McCaffrey, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grzybowski & Whitesides, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Yi, Du, & Zajac, 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wiita et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice
AbbreviationProf. Psychol. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)0735-7028
ISSN (online)1939-1323
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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