How to format your references using the Professional Psychology: Research and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, V. (2010). The outlook for a cure. Nature, 466(7304), S11-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tans, S. J., & Dekker, C. (2000). Potential modulations along carbon nanotubes. Nature, 404(6780), 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pozzi, F., Di Matteo, T., & Aste, T. (2013). Spread of risk across financial markets: better to invest in the peripheries. Scientific Reports, 3, 1665.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nicastro, F., Mathur, S., Elvis, M., Drake, J., Fang, T., Fruscione, A., Krongold, Y., Marshall, H., Williams, R., & Zezas, A. (2005). The mass of the missing baryons in the X-ray forest of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Nature, 433(7025), 495–498.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cahill, T. H. (2012). Low Impact Development and Sustainable Stormwater Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pezzulo, G., Butz, M. V., Castelfranchi, C., & Falcone, R. (Eds.). (2008). The Challenge of Anticipation: A Unifying Framework for the Analysis and Design of Artificial Cognitive Systems (Vol. 5225). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, Y., & Evans, D. (2011). Protecting Private Web Content from Embedded Scripts. In V. Atluri & C. Diaz (Eds.), Computer Security – ESORICS 2011: 16th European Symposium on Research in Computer Security, Leuven, Belgium, September 12-14,2011. Proceedings (pp. 60–79). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017, May 17). Exoplanet As Dense As Styrofoam Might Teach Us A Lot About Planetary Atmospheres. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Head Start and Even Start: Greater Collaboration Needed on Measures of Adult Education and Literacy (GAO-02-348). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lopez, D. E. (2009). Understanding and responding to culturally based spiritual phenomena among Latino clinicians [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, February 2). White House Memo; President’s Early Troubles Rooted in Party’s Old Strains. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Hughes, 2010; Tans & Dekker, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tans & Dekker, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Pozzi et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nicastro et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleProfessional Psychology: Research and Practice
AbbreviationProf. Psychol. Res. Pr.
ISSN (print)0735-7028
ISSN (online)1939-1323
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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