How to format your references using the Production & Manufacturing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production & Manufacturing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tranter, M. (2014). Biogeochemistry: Microbes eat rock under ice. Nature, 512(7514), 256–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bergquist, B. A., & Blum, J. D. (2007). Mass-dependent and -independent fractionation of hg isotopes by photoreduction in aquatic systems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5849), 417–420.
A journal article with 3 authors
Griffin, B. M., Schott, J., & Schink, B. (2007). Nitrite, an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5833), 1870.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Miyai, E., Sakai, K., Okano, T., Kunishi, W., Ohnishi, D., & Noda, S. (2006). Photonics: lasers producing tailored beams. Nature, 441(7096), 946.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, G. F. (2010). Gravity-Driven Water Flow in Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Brooks, B. W., & Huggett, D. B. (Eds.). (2012). Human Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Current and Future Perspectives (Vol. 4). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Amos, T. L., Rau, N., & Scott, C. R. (2015). Marketing to the Youth in South Africa: An International Comparison of the Aspirations of Higher Education Students. In J.-C. Chebat & A. B. Oumlil (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1998 Multicultural Marketing Conference (pp. 30–44). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production & Manufacturing Research.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, October 21). Could Tooth Regeneration Be Possible In Humans One Day? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Drug Education: Rural Programs Have Many Components and Most Rely Heavily on Federal Funds (HRD-92-34). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ward, S. (2009). Historiography, prophecy, and literature: “Divina retribución” and its underlying ideological agenda [Doctoral dissertation]. Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, October 3). Tigers’ Cabrera Speaks Cordially and Carries a Big Stick. New York Times, D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tranter, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Bergquist & Blum, 2007; Tranter, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bergquist & Blum, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Griffin et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Miyai et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction & Manufacturing Research
AbbreviationProd. Manuf. Res.
ISSN (online)2169-3277

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