How to format your references using the Production & Manufacturing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production & Manufacturing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hong, W. (2013). Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Assembly of a neural circuit. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6163), 1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwao, C., & Shidoji, Y. (2014). Induction of nuclear translocation of mutant cytoplasmic p53 by geranylgeranoic acid in a human hepatoma cell line. Scientific Reports, 4, 4419.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, S. B., Casey, P. J., & Beese, L. S. (2002). Reaction path of protein farnesyltransferase at atomic resolution. Nature, 419(6907), 645–650.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Agarwal, N., Lamichhane, G., Gupta, R., Nolan, S., & Bishai, W. R. (2009). Cyclic AMP intoxication of macrophages by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis adenylate cyclase. Nature, 460(7251), 98–102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Olofsson, P. (2014). Probabilities. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lenarčič, J., & Khatib, O. (Eds.). (2014). Advances in Robot Kinematics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Bolajraf, M. (2016). Control Synthesis for General Positive 2D Models. In A. El Oualkadi, F. Choubani, & A. El Moussati (Eds.), Proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies 2015: MedCT 2015 Volume 2 (pp. 31–39). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production & Manufacturing Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 5). It’s Time To Fix Our Outdated Guidelines For Human Vaccine Trials. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Emergency and State and Local Law Enforcement Systems: Committee Questions Concerning Year 2000 Challenges (No. AIMD-99-247R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alimo, C. J. (2010). From dialogue to action: The development of White racial allies (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, B. (2017, September 21). How Did Yoda End Up With a King? New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hong, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Hong, 2013; Iwao & Shidoji, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwao & Shidoji, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Long, Casey, & Beese, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Agarwal, Lamichhane, Gupta, Nolan, & Bishai, 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction & Manufacturing Research
AbbreviationProd. Manuf. Res.
ISSN (online)2169-3277

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