How to format your references using the Production & Manufacturing Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Production & Manufacturing Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski, D. (2001). Ecologists score victory over controversial dyke project. Nature, 410(6829), 619.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clusella-Trullas, S., & Chown, S. L. (2011). Comment on “Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6029), 537; author reply 537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, S. M., Malik, H. S., & Emerman, M. (2007). Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5832), 1756–1758.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dong, X.-P., Donoghue, P. C. J., Cheng, H., & Liu, J.-B. (2004). Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China. Nature, 427(6971), 237–240.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bécherrawy, T. (2012). Electromagnetism. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zeng, Q.-A. (Ed.). (2016). Wireless Communications, Networking and Applications: Proceedings of WCNA 2014 (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 348). Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Agterberg, D. F. (2012). Magnetoelectric Effects, Helical Phases, and FFLO Phases. In E. Bauer & M. Sigrist (Eds.), Non-Centrosymmetric Superconductors: Introduction and Overview (pp. 155–170). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Production & Manufacturing Research.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, February 24). Your Dog Has A Better Memory Than A Chimpanzee. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). Globe Safety Product’s Inquiry Regarding Firefighters Breathing Apparatus Developed for NASA by Scott Aviation Company (PSAD-77-68). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lin, L.-M. (2010). Transformation in Chinese Theatre Works’ the Legend of White Snake [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Seymour, M. (2015, April 24). How About a Nightcap? New York Times, BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Clusella-Trullas & Chown, 2011; Cyranoski, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clusella-Trullas & Chown, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Kaiser et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dong et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleProduction & Manufacturing Research
AbbreviationProd. Manuf. Res.
ISSN (online)2169-3277

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