How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dlakic, M., 2001. Is CdtB a nuclease or a phosphatase? Science 291, 547.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sholl, D.S., Johnson, J.K., 2006. Materials science. Making high-flux membranes with carbon nanotubes. Science 312, 1003–1004.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poot-Salazar, A., Hernández-Flores, Á., Ardisson, P.-L., 2014. Use of the SLW index to calculate growth function in the sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus. Sci. Rep. 4, 5151.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhao, Z.-G., Zhang, J., Yuan, Y., Lv, H., Tian, Y., Wu, D., Li, Q.-W., 2013. In-situ formation of cobalt-phosphate oxygen-evolving complex-anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets for oxygen reduction reaction. Sci. Rep. 3, 2263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stack, T., Ostrom, L.T., Wilhelmsen, C.A., 2016. Occupational Ergonomics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Nowicka, M., Šerbedžija, V. (Eds.), 2016. Migration and Social Remittances in a Global Europe, Europe in a Global Context. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Neuer, M., Mosch, C., Salk, J., Siegmund, K., Kushnarenko, V., Kombrink, S., Nau, T., Wesner, S., 2015. Storage Systems for I/O-Intensive Applications in Computational Chemistry, in: Resch, M.M., Bez, W., Focht, E., Kobayashi, H., Qi, J., Roller, S. (Eds.), Sustained Simulation Performance 2015: Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance, University of Stuttgart (HLRS) and Tohoku University, 2015. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 51–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Geologists' Association.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Why You Shouldn’t Get Too Excited About The Mars One Mission [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Computer Buys: Air Force Logistics Modernization Program Should Comply With Brooks Act (No. IMTEC-86-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
French, D.C., 2012. A Case against E-Waste: Where One Country’s Trash is (Not) Another Country’s Treasure: Developing National E-Waste Legislation to Regulate E-Waste Exportation (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2017. What the Old House Hid. New York Times RE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dlakic, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dlakic, 2001; Sholl and Johnson, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sholl and Johnson, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhao et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Geologists' Association
AbbreviationProc. Geol. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0016-7878

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