How to format your references using the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Proceedings of the Geologists' Association. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scholz, B.C., 2002. Innateness. Nature 415, 739.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulze, A., Harris, A.L., 2012. How cancer metabolism is tuned for proliferation and vulnerable to disruption. Nature 491, 364–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Horodecki, M., Oppenheim, J., Winter, A., 2005. Partial quantum information. Nature 436, 673–676.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen, S., White, B.J., Sanderson, M.W., Amrine, D.E., Ilany, A., Lanzas, C., 2014. Highly dynamic animal contact network and implications on disease transmission. Sci. Rep. 4, 4472.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Modarres, M., Amiri, M., Jackson, C., 2017. Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
El-Toukhy, T., Braude, P. (Eds.), 2014. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in Clinical Practice. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Palen, B., Benditt, J.O., 2015. Nocturnal Noninvasive Ventilation in Neuromuscular Ventilatory Disorders, in: Basner, R.C., Parthasarathy, S. (Eds.), Nocturnal Non-Invasive Ventilation: Theory, Evidence, and Clinical Practice. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 113–133.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Proceedings of the Geologists' Association.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Pharma Use Loophole To Hike Up The Price Of Drugs – So Why Doesn’t The NHS Stop It? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Air Traffic Control: Surveillance Radar Request for the Cherry Capital Airport (No. RCED-98-118). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Benware, A., 2017. The Roles of Teaching Experience and Authoritative Classroom Management Style on Student Discipline (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2005. From a Bitter War Defeat Comes Russia’s Latest Blockbuster Action Movie. New York Times B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Scholz, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Scholz, 2002; Schulze and Harris, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schulze and Harris, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleProceedings of the Geologists' Association
AbbreviationProc. Geol. Assoc.
ISSN (print)0016-7878

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