How to format your references using the Primates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ball P (2013) Arts: Reinventing Galileo. Nature 494:428–429
A journal article with 2 authors
Züllig S, Hengartner MO (2004) Cell biology. Tickling macrophages, a serious business. Science 304:1123–1124
A journal article with 3 authors
Gollihar J, Levy M, Ellington AD (2014) Biochemistry. Many paths to the origin of life. Science 343:259–260
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lu T, Pan Y, Kao S-Y, et al (2004) Gene regulation and DNA damage in the ageing human brain. Nature 429:883–891

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morana J (2013) Sustainable Supply Chain Management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA
An edited book
Yang M (2015) Energy Efficiency: Benefits for Environment and Society. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
De Masellis R, Ghidini C, Ranise S (2015) A Declarative Framework for Specifying and Enforcing Purpose-Aware Policies. In: Foresti S (ed) Security and Trust Management: 11th International Workshop, STM 2015, Vienna, Austria, September 21-22, 2015, Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 55–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primates.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Doctors Announce World’s First Successful Penis Transplant. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Information Technology: VA Actions Needed to Implement Critical Reforms. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tovar B (2010) A drug and alcohol education and prevention program for Hispanic families: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2007) Iran: Russia Delays Nuclear Plant To 2008. New York Times A6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ball 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Züllig and Hengartner 2004; Ball 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Züllig and Hengartner 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimates
ISSN (print)0032-8332
ISSN (online)1610-7365
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles