How to format your references using the Primates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowman L (2003) Different directions? Nature 426:712
A journal article with 2 authors
Yartsev MM, Ulanovsky N (2013) Representation of three-dimensional space in the hippocampus of flying bats. Science 340:367–372
A journal article with 3 authors
Miner-Williams WM, Moughan PJ, Fuller MF (2013) Analysis of an ethanol precipitate from ileal digesta: evaluation of a method to determine mucin. Sci Rep 3:3145
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Liu Z-Q, Song J-P, Liu X, et al (2014) Mast cell-derived serine proteinase regulates T helper 2 polarization. Sci Rep 4:4649

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Thériault M, Rosiers FD (2011) Modeling Urban Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zaibert L (ed) (2016) The Theory and Practice of Ontology. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London
A chapter in an edited book
Jacob G, Debar H, Filiol E (2009) Malware Behavioral Detection by Attribute-Automata Using Abstraction from Platform and Language. In: Kirda E, Jha S, Balzarotti D (eds) Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 12th International Symposium, RAID 2009, Saint-Malo, France, September 23-25, 2009. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 81–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primates.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Trans Fats Linked To Greater Risk Of Death And Heart Disease. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1971) Examination of Disbursing Transactions, Naval Supply Corps School, Athens, Georgia. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramberg KS (2010) L’envers et l’endroit: The other side of the cloth. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly E (1994) PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times 1317

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bowman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Bowman 2003; Yartsev and Ulanovsky 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yartsev and Ulanovsky 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimates
ISSN (print)0032-8332
ISSN (online)1610-7365
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles