How to format your references using the Primates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mesirov JP (2010) Computer science. Accessible reproducible research. Science 327:415–416
A journal article with 2 authors
Vlaminck V, Bailleul M (2008) Current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift. Science 322:410–413
A journal article with 3 authors
Beerling DJ, Osborne CP, Chaloner WG (2001) Evolution of leaf-form in land plants linked to atmospheric CO2 decline in the Late Palaeozoic era. Nature 410:352–354
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Headland SE, Jones HR, D’Sa ASV, et al (2014) Cutting-edge analysis of extracellular microparticles using ImageStream(X) imaging flow cytometry. Sci Rep 4:5237

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Williams DL (2012) Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Kramer A, Merrow M (eds) (2013) Circadian Clocks. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Post W (2014) Wheel brakes. In: Reif K (ed) Brakes, Brake Control and Driver Assistance Systems: Function, Regulation and Components. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden, pp 56–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primates.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Robots Could Soon Be Controlled By Bacteria. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) U.S. Citizens Studying Medicine Abroad. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuellar D (2011) Impact of boring insects on the reproductive success of Hesperoyucca whipplei (Our Lord’s candle). Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY JC Jr (2017) Man’s Murder Conviction Set Aside at D.A.’s Request. New York Times A20

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mesirov 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Vlaminck and Bailleul 2008; Mesirov 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vlaminck and Bailleul 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Headland et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimates
ISSN (print)0032-8332
ISSN (online)1610-7365
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles