How to format your references using the Primates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C (2000) Charm, not tact, aided pioneer in fight for physics. Nature 403:586–587
A journal article with 2 authors
Ghezzi I, Ruggles C (2007) Chankillo: a 2300-year-old solar observatory in coastal Peru. Science 315:1239–1243
A journal article with 3 authors
Otto S, Furlan RLE, Sanders JKM (2002) Selection and amplification of hosts from dynamic combinatorial libraries of macrocyclic disulfides. Science 297:590–593
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Reid SD, Herbelin CJ, Bumbaugh AC, et al (2000) Parallel evolution of virulence in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature 406:64–67

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coussy O (2005) Poromechanics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Zhong Z (ed) (2013) Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Engineering and Applications (IEA) 2012: Volume 3. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Hraška V, Murín P (2015) Interruption of the Aortic Arch. In: Murín P (ed) Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease II: Single Ventricle and Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Aortic Arch Anomalies Septal Defects and Anomalies in Pulmonary Venous Return Anomalies of Thoracic Arteries and Veins A Video Manual. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 119–137

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primates.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Most Incredible Microscope Images Of 2016 Reveal A Beautiful, Hidden Universe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Aviation Infrastructure: Feasibility of Using Alternate Means to Satisfy Requirements of Alaska National Airspace System Interfacility Communications System (ANICS) Phase II. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stitt CR (2008) Differences in theoretical constructs of processing health information in narrative entertainment television messages. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) An Observer Inside the Terrifying World of Jihad. New York Times C5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Macilwain 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Macilwain 2000; Ghezzi and Ruggles 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ghezzi and Ruggles 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Reid et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimates
ISSN (print)0032-8332
ISSN (online)1610-7365
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles