How to format your references using the Primates citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primates. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bass J (2012) Circadian topology of metabolism. Nature 491:348–356
A journal article with 2 authors
Trauger JT, Traub WA (2007) A laboratory demonstration of the capability to image an Earth-like extrasolar planet. Nature 446:771–773
A journal article with 3 authors
Fine PVA, Mesones I, Coley PD (2004) Herbivores promote habitat specialization by trees in Amazonian forests. Science 305:663–665
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Rak A, Pylypenko O, Durek T, et al (2003) Structure of Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor in complex with prenylated YPT1 GTPase. Science 302:646–650

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rowlinson M (2016) A Practical Guide to the NEC3 Engineering and Construction Contract. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Peters JF, Skowron A, Dubois D, et al (eds) (2005) Transactions on Rough Sets II: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Kegl B, Kegl M, Pehan S (2013) Effects of Biodiesel Usage on Injection Process Characteristics. In: Kegl M, Pehan S (eds) Green Diesel Engines: Biodiesel Usage in Diesel Engines. Springer, London, pp 127–152

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primates.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Survival Of Dust Disks Near Galactic Center A Mystery. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) [Comments on FAA Employee’s Claim for Backpay]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barta ME (2009) Culture, customer-centricity, and customer relationship management in an online postsecondary learning institution. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) Hostesses as Recruiters? How Far Is Too Far? New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bass 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Trauger and Traub 2007; Bass 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Trauger and Traub 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Rak et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimates
ISSN (print)0032-8332
ISSN (online)1610-7365
ScopeAnimal Science and Zoology

Other styles