How to format your references using the Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice (POP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alonzo SH. Evolution. An unexpected cost of sex. Science 2015;347(6225):948–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bezdek R, Wendling R. Recruiters and industry. Job creation and environmental protection. Nature 2005;434(7033):678.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sambarey A, Prashanthi K, Chandra N. Mining large-scale response networks reveals “topmost activities” in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Sci Rep 2013;3:2302.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Carlsbecker A, Lee J-Y, Roberts CJ, et al. Cell signalling by microRNA165/6 directs gene dose-dependent root cell fate. Nature 2010;465(7296):316–21.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krichen S, Chaouachi J. Graph-Related Optimization and Decision Support Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Wilcock N. Hartmut Elsenhans and a Critique of Capitalism: Conversations on Theory and Policy Implications. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Paz EB, Ceccarelli M, Otero JE, et al. The Machine Renaissance. in: Ceccarelli M, Echávarri Otero J, Muñoz Sanz JL, editors. A Brief Illustrated History of Machines and Mechanisms. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 91–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Mysterious Substances Observed In Europa’s Cracks. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Teacher Quality: Survey Results of State Officials on Efforts to Coordinate Teacher Quality Initiatives (GAO-09-594SP, July 2009), an E-supplement to GAO-09-593. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gaudet CJ. A General Approach to the Direct Detection of Dark Matter. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR. The Harpsichordist With a Chip on His Keyboard. New York Times 2017:C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care: Clinics in Office Practice
AbbreviationPrim. Care
ISSN (print)0095-4543
ISSN (online)1558-299X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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