How to format your references using the Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice (POP). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bohannon J. The Gonzo Scientist. Can scientists dance? Science 2008;319(5865):905.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheridan GK, Dev KK. Targeting S1P receptors in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice improves early deficits in locomotor activity and increases ultrasonic vocalisations. Sci Rep 2014;4:5051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE. Human voice recognition depends on language ability. Science 2011;333(6042):595.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smolyaninova VN, Yost B, Lahneman D, et al. Self-assembled tunable photonic hyper-crystals. Sci Rep 2014;4:5706.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held G. Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2001.
An edited book
Schmidt AU, Russello G, Krontiris I, et al., editors. Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems: 4th International Conference, MobiSec 2012, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, June 25-26, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 107. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
de Maio M, Rzany B. The Most Common Indications. in: Rzany B, Maio M de, editors. Injectable Fillers in Aesthetic Medicine. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 31–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice.

Blog post
Luntz S. How Our Ancestors First Used Fire To Shape Tools 70,000 Years Ago. IFLScience. Available at: Accessed on October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Technology: Five School Districts’ Experiences in Financing Technology Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dennard B. The Impact of Racial Centrality on Authenticity and the Race-Based Impression Management Strategies of Black Management Consultants. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Case of Texas Murderer Engrosses Supreme Court. New York Times 2007:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePrimary Care: Clinics in Office Practice
AbbreviationPrim. Care
ISSN (print)0095-4543
ISSN (online)1558-299X
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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