How to format your references using the Preventive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall, A., 2014. Climate. Projecting regional change. Science 346, 1461–1462.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armakolas, A., Klar, A.J.S., 2006. Cell type regulates selective segregation of mouse chromosome 7 DNA strands in mitosis. Science 311, 1146–1149.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fricke, H.C., Hencecroth, J., Hoerner, M.E., 2011. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch. Nature 480, 513–515.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schmid, M.F., Sherman, M.B., Matsudaira, P., Chiu, W., 2004. Structure of the acrosomal bundle. Nature 431, 104–107.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robinson, T.R., 2010. Genetics for Dummies®. Wiley Publishing, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ariola, M., 2008. Magnetic Control of Tokamak Plasmas, Advances in Industrial Control. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Ivanov, P., Voigt, K., 2011. Schema, Ontology and Metamodel Matching - Different, But Indeed the Same?, in: Bellatreche, L., Mota Pinto, F. (Eds.), Model and Data Engineering: First International Conference, MEDI 2011, Óbidos, Portugal, September 28-30, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 18–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Mars: Contamination, Planetary Protection And The Search For Life [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1994. Job Training Partnership Act: Labor Title IV Initiatives Could Improve Relations With Native Americans (No. HEHS-94-67). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Turkel, C.C., 2008. Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mancuso, A., Mueller, B., 2015. 2 Workers Die When Backyard Fuel Tank Explodes in Westchester County. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hall, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Armakolas and Klar, 2006; Hall, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Armakolas and Klar, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmid et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Med.
ISSN (print)0091-7435
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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