How to format your references using the Preventive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crame, J.A., 2009. Evolution. Time’s stamp on modern biogeography. Science 323, 720–721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimmerberg, J., Chernomordik, L.V., 2005. Neuroscience. Synaptic membranes bend to the will of a neurotoxin. Science 310, 1626–1627.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doligez, B., Danchin, E., Clobert, J., 2002. Public information and breeding habitat selection in a wild bird population. Science 297, 1168–1170.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Louail, T., Lenormand, M., Cantu Ros, O.G., Picornell, M., Herranz, R., Frias-Martinez, E., Ramasco, J.J., Barthelemy, M., 2014. From mobile phone data to the spatial structure of cities. Sci. Rep. 4, 5276.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kupka, H.J., 2010. Transitions in Molecular Systems. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Bajo, J., Hallenborg, K., Pawlewski, P., Botti, V., Sánchez-Pi, N., Duque Méndez, N.D., Lopes, F., Julian, V. (Eds.), 2015. Highlights of Practical Applications of Agents, Multi-Agent Systems, and Sustainability - The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2015, Salamanca, Spain, June 3-4, 2015. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Banerjee, G.D., Banerjee, S., 2015. Crop Diversification: An Exploratory Analysis, in: Ghosh, M., Sarkar, D., Roy, B.C. (Eds.), Diversification of Agriculture in Eastern India, India Studies in Business and Economics. Springer India, New Delhi, pp. 37–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Medicine.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2017. Spring Just Arrived In America Three Weeks Early [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Aviation Security: Enhancements Made in Passenger and Checked Baggage Screening, but Challenges Remain (No. GAO-06-371T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Potter, R.H., 2009. Diffusion of oxygen and lithium isotopes at a contact between the Bushveld Complex and metasedimentary rock: Implications for the timescale of Phepane Dome diapirism (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marshall, L., 2011. From Granny’s Store to G.M. New York Times BU9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crame, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Crame, 2009; Zimmerberg and Chernomordik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimmerberg and Chernomordik, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Louail et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Med.
ISSN (print)0091-7435
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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