How to format your references using the Preventive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shaffer, C.H., 2006. The charge-up man. Nature 444, 652.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hayes, R., Weiss, H., 2006. Epidemiology. Understanding HIV epidemic trends in Africa. Science 311, 620–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kieffer, H.H., Christensen, P.R., Titus, T.N., 2006. CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars’ seasonal south polar ice cap. Nature 442, 793–796.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Etienne, R.S., Latimer, A.M., Silander, J.A., Jr, Cowling, R.M., 2006. Comment on “Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot.” Science 311, 610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pinoli, J.-C., 2014. Mathematical Foundations of Image Processing and Analysis 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kabanov, Y., Rutkowski, M., Zariphopoulou, T. (Eds.), 2014. Inspired by Finance: The Musiela Festschrift. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Leu, G., Namatame, A., 2009. Evolving Failure Resilience in Scale-Free Networks, in: Gen, M., Green, D., Katai, O., McKay, B., Namatame, A., Sarker, R.A., Zhang, B.-T. (Eds.), Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 49–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. 170-Year-Old Shipwreck Beer Tastes Like Goat And Smells Of Rotting Cabbage [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Actions Needed to Clarify Responsibilities and Increase Preparedness for Evacuations (No. GAO-07-44). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li, H., 2017. Improvement of Compressive Strength of Oil Well Cement by Agitation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. Scouting Report. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shaffer, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Hayes and Weiss, 2006; Shaffer, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hayes and Weiss, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Etienne et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Med.
ISSN (print)0091-7435
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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