How to format your references using the Preventive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moreno, E., 2014. Cancer: Darwinian tumour suppression. Nature 509, 435–436.
A journal article with 2 authors
Richardson, T.L., Jackson, G.A., 2007. Small phytoplankton and carbon export from the surface ocean. Science 315, 838–840.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reimand, J., Wagih, O., Bader, G.D., 2013. The mutational landscape of phosphorylation signaling in cancer. Sci. Rep. 3, 2651.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Schramke, V., Sheedy, D.M., Denli, A.M., Bonila, C., Ekwall, K., Hannon, G.J., Allshire, R.C., 2005. RNA-interference-directed chromatin modification coupled to RNA polymerase II transcription. Nature 435, 1275–1279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simmendinger, H., 2013. HOAI 2013: Praxisleitfaden für Ingenieure und Architekten. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Jovane, F., 2009. The ManuFuture Road: Towards Competitive and Sustainable High-Adding-Value Manufacturing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Savenkov, D., Braslavski, P., Lebedev, M., 2011. Search Snippet Evaluation at Yandex: Lessons Learned and Future Directions, in: Forner, P., Gonzalo, J., Kekäläinen, J., Lalmas, M., Rijke, M. de (Eds.), Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access Evaluation: Second International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2011, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, September 19-22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 14–25.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Medicine.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. Five Amazing Ways Plants Have Created New Technologies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Space Transportation System: Past, Present, Future (No. PSAD-77-113). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wheeler, J.A., 2012. The Scaling of High Harmonics with Mid-Infrared Driving Fields and a Method for the Spatial Isolation of Individual Subfemtosecond Pulses (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2011. Tallying the Financial Aftermath: Japan Government Likely To Bear Big Monetary Loss. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Moreno, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Moreno, 2014; Richardson and Jackson, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Richardson and Jackson, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Schramke et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Med.
ISSN (print)0091-7435
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Other styles