How to format your references using the Preventive Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Preventive Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stewart, M., 2009. Cell biology. Nuclear export of small RNAs. Science 326, 1195–1196.
A journal article with 2 authors
Froehler, M.T., Duffy, C.J., 2002. Cortical neurons encoding path and place: where you go is where you are. Science 295, 2462–2465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lissauer, J.J., Dawson, R.I., Tremaine, S., 2014. Advances in exoplanet science from Kepler. Nature 513, 336–344.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lin, Z., Liu, Yuan, Halim, U., Ding, M., Liu, Yuanyue, Wang, Y., Jia, C., Chen, P., Duan, Xidong, Wang, C., Song, F., Li, M., Wan, C., Huang, Y., Duan, Xiangfeng, 2018. Solution-processable 2D semiconductors for high-performance large-area electronics. Nature 562, 254–258.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Harte, L., 2013. Reading the Contemporary Irish Novel 1987-2007. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Tidona, C., Darai, G. (Eds.), 2011. The Springer Index of Viruses, 2nd ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
McDermid, J.A., 2012. The Risks of LSCITS: The Odds Are Stacked against Us, in: Calinescu, R., Garlan, D. (Eds.), Large-Scale Complex IT Systems. Development, Operation and Management: 17th Monterey Workshop 2012, Oxford, UK, March 19-21, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 94–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Preventive Medicine.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. We Are Now In “Uncharted Territory” As Climate Change Continues Into 2017 [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Charter Schools: Education Could Do More to Assist Charter Schools with Applying for Discretionary Grants (No. GAO-11-89). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tickner, A., 2009. Production and consumption at the hillfort site of Mont Dardon, France: An archeobotanical analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2014. Rudolph Valentino in ‘The Sheik.’ New York Times C37.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ekeland, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Cyranoski, 2002; Shimada, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Froehler and Duffy, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Wan et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePreventive Medicine
AbbreviationPrev. Med.
ISSN (print)0091-7435
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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