How to format your references using the Portuguese Economic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Economic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lowry AR (2006) Resonant slow fault slip in subduction zones forced by climatic load stress. Nature 442:802–805
A journal article with 2 authors
Ridderinkhof KR, van den Wildenberg WPM (2005) Neuroscience. Adaptive coding. Science 307:1059–1060
A journal article with 3 authors
Mazmanian SK, Round JL, Kasper DL (2008) A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease. Nature 453:620–625
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kataoka N, Dobashi I, Hagiwara M, Ohno M (2013) hDbr1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein with a protein phosphatase-like motif essential for debranching activity. Sci Rep 3:1090

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ishiyama JT (2011) Comparative Politics. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Wu Y (ed) (2012) Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 1. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Dai F, Xu Y (2013) Weighted Polynomial Inequalities. In: Xu Y (ed) Approximation Theory and Harmonic Analysis on Spheres and Balls. Springer, New York, NY, pp 105–126

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Economic Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Food For Thought: Feeding Our Growing Population With Flies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Intercollegiate Athletics: Status of Efforts to Promote Gender Equity. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rendleman AJ (2017) Energetics of Physiological Plasticity during Larval Development of the Sand Dollar, Dendraster Excentricus. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L (2010) American (Judicial) Idol. New York Times A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lowry 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ridderinkhof and van den Wildenberg 2005; Lowry 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ridderinkhof and van den Wildenberg 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Kataoka et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Economic Journal
AbbreviationPort. Econ. J.
ISSN (print)1617-982X
ISSN (online)1617-9838
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles