How to format your references using the Portuguese Economic Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Portuguese Economic Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin J (2003) Aging research: is long life in the blood? Science 302:373–375
A journal article with 2 authors
Hewitt SC, Korach KS (2011) Cell biology. A hand to support the implantation window. Science 331:863–864
A journal article with 3 authors
Granot J, Nakar E, Piran T (2003) Astrophysics: refreshed shocks from a gamma-ray burst. Nature 426:138–139
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Goedert J, Lécuyer C, Amiot R, et al (2018) Euryhaline ecology of early tetrapods revealed by stable isotopes. Nature 558:68–72

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Randall JF (2006) Designing Indoor Solar Products. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Nakagawa N, Nakamichi M, Sugiura H (eds) (2010) The Japanese Macaques. Springer Japan, Tokyo
A chapter in an edited book
Tinnemeier NAM, Dastani M, Meyer J-JC (2009) Orwell’s Nightmare for Agents? Programming Multi-agent Organisations. In: Hindriks KV, Pokahr A, Sardina S (eds) Programming Multi-Agent Systems: 6th International Workshop, ProMAS 2008, Estoril, Portugal, May 13, 2008. Revised Invited and Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 56–71

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Portuguese Economic Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) How Alcohol Makes You Friendlier – But Only To Certain People. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Evaluation of the Office of Economic Opportunity’s Performance Contracting Experiment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez J (2010) Viviendo en las sombras: Examining the educational experiences of undocumented immigrant Latino students in a public secondary school setting. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz M (2017) Rikers Inmate Spent Brief Escape Hiding in Bushes. New York Times A23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Couzin 2003; Hewitt and Korach 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hewitt and Korach 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Goedert et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePortuguese Economic Journal
AbbreviationPort. Econ. J.
ISSN (print)1617-982X
ISSN (online)1617-9838
ScopeGeneral Economics, Econometrics and Finance
Economics and Econometrics

Other styles