How to format your references using the Polski Przegl?d Otorynolaryngologiczny citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Polski Przegl?d Otorynolaryngologiczny. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hellemans A. Antihydrogen: through the looking glass. Nature 2000;406:556–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Makinoshima H, Glickman MS. Regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope composition and virulence by intramembrane proteolysis. Nature 2005;436:406–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bard E, Rostek F, Ménot-Combes G. Paleoclimate. A better radiocarbon clock. Science 2004;303:178–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Schulman BA, Carrano AC, Jeffrey PD, Bowen Z, Kinnucan ER, Finnin MS, et al. Insights into SCF ubiquitin ligases from the structure of the Skp1-Skp2 complex. Nature 2000;408:381–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McDonnell G, Sheard D. A Practical Guide to Decontamination in Healthcare. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Abdinia S. Design of Organic Complementary Circuits and Systems on Foil. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Alirzayeva E, Ali-zade V, Shirvani T, Toderich K. Evaluation of Wild Halophytes of Aralo-Caspian Flora Towards Soil Restoration and Food Security Improvement. In: Öztürk M, Ashraf M, Aksoy A, Ahmad MSA, Hakeem KR, editors. Plants, Pollutants and Remediation, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015, p. 63–98.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Polski Przegl?d Otorynolaryngologiczny.

Blog post
Andrew D. Second Detection Heralds The Era Of Gravitational Wave Astronomy. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA Uses Earned Value Techniques to Help Manage Information Technology Acquisitions, but Needs to Clarify Policy and Strengthen Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Aggarwal E. South Asian women’s attitudes toward help-seeking behaviors. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Morris M. Black Sheep. New York Times 2012:BR31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePolski Przegl?d Otorynolaryngologiczny
AbbreviationOtolaryngol. Pol.
ISSN (print)2084-5308

Other styles