How to format your references using the PM&R citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PM&R. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chun J. Immunology. The sources of a lipid conundrum. Science 2007;316:208–10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ting AY, Endy D. Signal transduction. Decoding NF-kappaB signaling. Science 2002;298:1189–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shekhawat G, Tark S-H, Dravid VP. MOSFET-Embedded microcantilevers for measuring deflection in biomolecular sensors. Science 2006;311:1592–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Palaferri D, Todorov Y, Bigioli A, Mottaghizadeh A, Gacemi D, Calabrese A, et al. Room-temperature nine-µm-wavelength photodetectors and GHz-frequency heterodyne receivers. Nature 2018;556:85–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Qiu X, Ding C, Hu D. Bistatic SAR Data Processing Algorithms. Solaris South Tower, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2013.
An edited book
Mikhailov AV, editor. Integrability. vol. 767. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Alekseev VR. Reactivation of Diapausing Crustaceans. In: Alekseev VR, Stasio BT de, Gilbert JJ, editors. Diapause in Aquatic Invertebrates Theory and Human Use, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007, p. 65–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PM&R.

Blog post
Hale T. Can You Spot The 1.8-Meter Snake Lurking In This Photo? IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Improved Telephone Accessibility Would Better Serve the Public. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Banerjee S. A mathematical model for the transition in firing patterns across puberty of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gordon MR. U.S.-Russia Hotline Buzzes Even After Strike on Syria. New York Times 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePM&R
AbbreviationPM R
ISSN (print)1934-1482
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles