How to format your references using the PM&R citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PM&R. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wills M. Chemistry. Better asymmetric reactions. Science 2006;311:619–20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chan CE, Odde DJ. Traction dynamics of filopodia on compliant substrates. Science 2008;322:1687–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Fish J, Raule N, Attardi G. Discovery of a major D-loop replication origin reveals two modes of human mtDNA synthesis. Science 2004;306:2098–101.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Swaddle TW, Rosenqvist J, Yu P, Bylaska E, Phillips BL, Casey WH. Kinetic evidence for five-coordination in AlOH(aq)2+ ion. Science 2005;308:1450–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seyfried TN. Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Chen F, editor. Speech Technology: Theory and Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Chodkiewicz H. Fostering Strategy Use in a Reading-Based Course in EFL Academic Context: Students’ Perspectives. In: Gabryś-Barker D, Wojtaszek A, editors. Studying Second Language Acquisition from a Qualitative Perspective, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PM&R.

Blog post
Taub B. NASA Will Soon Let Private Companies Attach Modules To The ISS. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Loans: Direct Loan Default Rates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
San KA. Synthesis of Alkanethiolate-Capped Metal Nanoparticles Using Alkyl Thiosulfate Ligand Precursors for Selective Catalytic Reactions. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. Marginalized Souls, Magnified. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePM&R
AbbreviationPM R
ISSN (print)1934-1482
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles