How to format your references using the PM&R citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PM&R. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Isaacs JT. Cancer. Prostate cancer takes nerve. Science 2013;341:134–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poulin PR, Nelson KA. Irreversible organic crystalline chemistry monitored in real time. Science 2006;313:1756–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rozin P, Haidt J, Fincher K. Psychology. From oral to moral. Science 2009;323:1179–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kang S-G, Araya-Secchi R, Wang D, Wang B, Huynh T, Zhou R. Dual inhibitory pathways of metallofullerenol Gd@C₈₂(OH)₂₂ on matrix metalloproteinase-2: molecular insight into drug-like nanomedicine. Sci Rep 2014;4:4775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray KA, Paschkewitz JJ. Next Generation HALT and HASS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
Hunter W. Genome Mapping and Genomics in Arthropods. vol. 1. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Daley JM, Paterson G, Drouillard KG. Bioamplification as a Bioaccumulation Mechanism for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Wildlife. In: Whitacre DM, editor. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 227, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014, p. 107–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PM&R.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Convert Human Skin Cells Directly Into Brain Cells. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Poor Preschool-Aged Children: Numbers Increase but Most Not in Preschool. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finley S. How online communication and social media networking are used in alcohol use treatment. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M. Scaling Past Death. New York Times 2017:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePM&R
AbbreviationPM R
ISSN (print)1934-1482
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles