How to format your references using the PM&R citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PM&R. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Oka T. Vibrational dynamics. Taming CH₅+, the “enfant terrible” of chemical structures. Science 2015;347:1313–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dupont S, Pörtner H. Marine science: get ready for ocean acidification. Nature 2013;498:429.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhao BS, Meijer G, Schöllkopf W. Quantum reflection of He2 several nanometers above a grating surface. Science 2011;331:892–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tang YL, Zhu YL, Wang YJ, Wang WY, Xu YB, Ren WJ, et al. Atomic-scale mapping of dipole frustration at 90° charged domain walls in ferroelectric PbTiO3 films. Sci Rep 2014;4:4115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chaskalson M. The Mindful Workplace. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Sarma AK, Singh VP, Kartha SA, Bhattacharjya RK, editors. Urban Hydrology, Watershed Management and Socio-Economic Aspects. vol. 73. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruiz GM, Lorda J, Arnwine A, Lion K. Chapter II Shipping Patterns Associated with the Panama Canal: Effects on Biotic Exchange? In: Gollasch S, Galil BS, Cohen AN, editors. Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006, p. 113–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PM&R.

Blog post
Andrew E. What Is The ‘Warm Blob’ In The Pacific And What Can It Tell Us About Our Future Climate? IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Emergency Communications Need Clarification. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bigelow RW. Perception of Online Legal Education among Recently Retired Law School Faculty. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Saslow L. Village Wants Restaurant Wastewater Degreased. New York Times 2007:14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePM&R
AbbreviationPM R
ISSN (print)1934-1482
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles