How to format your references using the Plant Signaling & Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Signaling & Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bloom BR. On the particularity of pathogens. Nature 2000; 406:760–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Seibel BA, Walsh PJ. Carbon cycle. Potential impacts of CO2 injection on deep-sea biota. Science 2001; 294:319–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alboussière T, Deguen R, Melzani M. Melting-induced stratification above the Earth’s inner core due to convective translation. Nature 2010; 466:744–7.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Anderson BJ, Acuña MH, Korth H, Purucker ME, Johnson CL, Slavin JA, Solomon SC, McNutt RL Jr. The structure of Mercury’s magnetic field from MESSENGER’s first flyby. Science 2008; 321:82–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dijksterhuis GB. Multivariate Data Analysis in Sensory and Consumer Science. Trumbull, Connecticut, USA: Food & Nutrition Press, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Alegre Pérez JP. Automatic Gain Control: Techniques and Architectures for RF Receivers. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Subrahmanyam K, Šmahel D. Intimacy and the Internet: Relationships with Friends, Romantic Partners, and Family Members. In: Smahel D, editor. Digital Youth: The Role of Media in Development. New York, NY: Springer; 2011. page 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Signaling & Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew D. Can You Trust Your Ears? IFLScience2015;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Issue Area: Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Greene L. Perceptions Of Women Leaders In A Catholic Archdiocese: A Phenomenological Study. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry MP. Fire Starter. New York Times2014; :MM54.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Signaling & Behavior
AbbreviationPlant Signal. Behav.
ISSN (print)1559-2316
ISSN (online)1559-2324
ScopePlant Science

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