How to format your references using the Plant Signaling & Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Plant Signaling & Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King G. Ensuring the data-rich future of the social sciences. Science 2011; 331:719–21.
A journal article with 2 authors
Victor DG, Leape JP. Global climate agreement: After the talks. Nature 2015; 527:439–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chookajorn T, Murdoch HA, Schuh CA. Design of stable nanocrystalline alloys. Science 2012; 337:951–4.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Pei ZM, Murata Y, Benning G, Thomine S, Klüsener B, Allen GJ, Grill E, Schroeder JI. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Nature 2000; 406:731–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Leis JW. Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB for Students and Researchers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Rampertab SD, Mullin GE, editors. Celiac Disease. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Salehi S, Anwar R, Hassan OH. Incorporation of Canon Lens Polishing Sludge in Stoneware: An Exploratory Study. In: Hassan OH, Abidin SZ, Anwar R, Kamaruzaman MF, editors. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Research of Arts, Design and Humanities (ISRADH 2014). Singapore: Springer; 2015. page 31–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Plant Signaling & Behavior.

Blog post
Taub B. New Nazca Geoglyph Of Strange, Tongue-Poking Creature Discovered [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Charter Schools: New Charter Schools Across the Country and in the District of Columbia Face Similar Start-Up Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gleason R. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina I. A Model for ‘Clean Coal’ Goes Awry. New York Times2016; :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePlant Signaling & Behavior
AbbreviationPlant Signal. Behav.
ISSN (print)1559-2316
ISSN (online)1559-2324
ScopePlant Science

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