How to format your references using the Planning Theory & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Theory & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Making the match. Nature, 431(7012), 1125.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fries-Gaither, J., & Lightle, K. (2011). SPORE series winner. Penguins and polar bears integrates science and literacy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6016), 413–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young, I. R., Zieger, S., & Babanin, A. V. (2011). Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6028), 451–455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shelton, A. O., Samhouri, J. F., Stier, A. C., & Levin, P. S. (2014). Assessing trade-offs to inform ecosystem-based fisheries management of forage fish. Scientific Reports, 4, 7110.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grous, A. (2012). Fracture Mechanics 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Surminski, S., & Tanner, T. (Eds.). (2016). Realising the “Triple Dividend of Resilience”: A New Business Case for Disaster Risk Management. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Garcke, J., Gerstner, T., & Griebel, M. (2013). Intraday Foreign Exchange Rate Forecasting Using Sparse Grids. In J. Garcke & M. Griebel (Eds.), Sparse Grids and Applications (pp. 81–105). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Theory & Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 6). Search For Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute Release First Observations From “Alien Megastructure” Star. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1977). National Science Foundation’s Actions on Recommendations of GAO Report “Opportunities for Improved Management of the Research Applied to National Needs (RANN) Program” (HRD-77-54). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sullivan, T. J. (2017). Molecular Ecology, Disease Ecology, and Candidate Genes for Pathogen Resistance in the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1992, November 29). No Headline. New York Times, 126.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Fries-Gaither & Lightle, 2011; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fries-Gaither & Lightle, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Young et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shelton et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Theory & Practice
ISSN (print)1464-9357
ISSN (online)1470-000X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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