How to format your references using the Planning Theory & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Theory & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton, R. (2001). Transgenic corn found growing in Mexico. Nature, 413(6854), 337.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale, J. E., & Li, Y.-G. (2003). Damage to the shallow Landers fault from the nearby Hector Mine earthquake. Nature, 421(6922), 524–526.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huntington, J. A., Read, R. J., & Carrell, R. W. (2000). Structure of a serpin-protease complex shows inhibition by deformation. Nature, 407(6806), 923–926.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nanbo, A., Watanabe, S., Halfmann, P., & Kawaoka, Y. (2013). The spatio-temporal distribution dynamics of Ebola virus proteins and RNA in infected cells. Scientific Reports, 3, 1206.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Grotewold, E., Chappell, J., & Kellogg, E. A. (2015). Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Wang, W.-Y. (Ed.). (2014). Codification in International Perspective: Selected Papers from the 2nd IACL Thematic Conference (Vol. 1). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tu, S.-F., & Hsu, C.-S. (2005). A Digital Rights Management Approach for Gray-Level Images. In S. Singh, M. Singh, C. Apte, & P. Perner (Eds.), Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: Third International Conference on Advances in Pattern Recognition, ICAPR 2005, Bath, UK, August 22-25, 2005, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 39–47). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Theory & Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 5). Found: The Missing Part Of Brain’s ‘Internal Compass.’ IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Federal Policy, Plans, and Organization for Science and Technology (No. 094579). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dickson, B. (2008). Yielding architecture: A manifesto for [urban + agri]culture [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C. (2016, September 8). Halep Puts Up a Fight, but Williams Rolls On. New York Times, B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton, 2001; Vidale & Li, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vidale & Li, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Huntington et al., 2000)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nanbo et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Theory & Practice
ISSN (print)1464-9357
ISSN (online)1470-000X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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