How to format your references using the Planning Theory & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Theory & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D. (2000). France finally picks Parisian site for new synchrotron. Nature, 407(6801), 119–120.
A journal article with 2 authors
Promislow, D. E. L., & Kaeberlein, M. (2014). Development. Chemical warfare in the battle of the sexes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6170), 491–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Keppler, H., Wiedenbeck, M., & Shcheka, S. S. (2003). Carbon solubility in olivine and the mode of carbon storage in the Earth’s mantle. Nature, 424(6947), 414–416.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wu, H., Kanatous, S. B., Thurmond, F. A., Gallardo, T., Isotani, E., Bassel-Duby, R., & Williams, R. S. (2002). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle by CaMK. Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5566), 349–352.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, N. (2013). Eclipse of Grace. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gelbukh, A. F. (Ed.). (2011). Computational Linguistics and Intelligent Text Processing: 12th International Conference, CICLing 2011, Tokyo, Japan, February 20-26, 2011. Proceedings, Part I (Vol. 6608). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Merzouki, R., Samantaray, A. K., Pathak, P. M., & Ould Bouamama, B. (2013). Physical Model-Based Control. In A. K. Samantaray, P. M. Pathak, & B. Ould Bouamama (Eds.), Intelligent Mechatronic Systems: Modeling, Control and Diagnosis (pp. 231–280). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Theory & Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 4). NASA Pretended Neptune Was An Exoplanet To Improve Our Chances Of Finding Life. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Research: Guidance for Equipment Acquired Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements (No. RCED-99-73). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, J. (2017). Catherine of Siena: No Saint Is an Island (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Savodnik, P. (2012, May 24). ‘Their First Lenny Bruce Could Be Coming.’ New York Times, p. MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2000; Promislow & Kaeberlein, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Promislow & Kaeberlein, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Keppler, Wiedenbeck, & Shcheka, 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Theory & Practice
ISSN (print)1464-9357
ISSN (online)1470-000X
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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