How to format your references using the Planning Practice & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Practice & Research (PPR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Feringa, B. L. (2001) Chemistry. A new twist on chirality, Science (New York, N.Y.), 292(5524), 2021–2022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peck, J. R., & Waxman, D. (2000) Mutation and sex in a competitive world, Nature, 406(6794), 399–404.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pham, T. C. T., Kim, H. S., & Yoon, K. B. (2011) Growth of uniformly oriented silica MFI and BEA zeolite films on substrates, Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6062), 1533–1538.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, L., Li, M., Wang, Y., Yin, Q.-Z., & Zhang, W. (2013) A novel molecular index for secondary oil migration distance, Scientific Reports, 3, 2487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Spatschek, K.-H. (2011) High Temperature Plasmas (Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).
An edited book
Li, Z., Liao, Z., & McAlindon, M. (Eds) (2014) Handbook of Capsule Endoscopy (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands).
A chapter in an edited book
Abdulla, P. A., Atig, M. F., & Stenman, J. (2014) Computing Optimal Reachability Costs in Priced Dense-Timed Pushdown Automata, in: A.-H. Dediu, C. Martín-Vide, J.-L. Sierra-Rodríguez, & B. Truthe (Eds), Language and Automata Theory and Applications: 8th International Conference, LATA 2014, Madrid, Spain, March 10-14, 2014. Proceedings, pp. 62–75 (Cham: Springer International Publishing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Practice & Research.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2017, January 26) What Happens If You Put Red Hot Steel On A Frozen Lake?,. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997) School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts (No. HEHS-97-31) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Verret, J. E. (2019) Property Tax Limitations, School District Revenues, and Equity: Analyses of Pennsylvania’s Act One (Doctoral dissertation) George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, August 14) For HBO, Storm Clouds Gather Over What Should Be a Smashing Summer, New York Times, p. B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Feringa, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Peck & Waxman, 2000; Feringa, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peck & Waxman, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Pham, Kim, & Yoon, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Zhang, Li, Wang, Yin, & Zhang, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Practice & Research
AbbreviationPlan. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)0269-7459
ISSN (online)1360-0583
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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