How to format your references using the Planning Practice & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Planning Practice & Research (PPR). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gaherty, J. B. (2001) Seismic evidence for hotspot-induced buoyant flow beneath the Reykjanes Ridge, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5535), 1645–1647.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rowe, M. L., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2009) Differences in early gesture explain SES disparities in child vocabulary size at school entry, Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5916), 951–953.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wardle, D. A., Walker, L. R., & Bardgett, R. D. (2004) Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences, Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5683), 509–513.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Tanaka, H., Arakawa, H., Yamaguchi, T., Shiraishi, K., Fukuda, S., Matsui, K., Takei, Y., & Nakamura, Y. (2000) A ribonucleotide reductase gene involved in a p53-dependent cell-cycle checkpoint for DNA damage, Nature, 404(6773), 42–49.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacGowan, C. (2011) The Twentieth-Century American Fiction Handbook (Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell).
An edited book
Martinez-de Dios, J. R. (2014) A Remote Integrated Testbed for Cooperating Objects (A. Jimenez-Gonzalez, A. de San Bernabe, & A. Ollero, Eds) (Cham: Springer International Publishing).
A chapter in an edited book
Fisher, C. T. (2007) Agricultural Intensification in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin, in: T. L. Thurston & C. T. Fisher (Eds), Seeking a Richer Harvest: The Archaeology of Subsistence Intensification, Innovation, and Change, pp. 91–106 (Boston, MA: Springer US).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Planning Practice & Research.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, November 30) Newly Discovered Fossils Provide Snapshot Of Life On Earth Before The Oxygen Crisis,. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Information Technology Investment: A Governmentwide Overview (No. AIMD-95-208) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Moua, P. (2009) Differential functions of the kinesin-1 tail in Drosophila melanogaster transport processes (Doctoral dissertation) Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Adkins, M. (2014, May 4) The Race to Beat ‘Best Before’, New York Times, p. MB3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gaherty, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Gaherty, 2001; Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Wardle, Walker, & Bardgett, 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Tanaka et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePlanning Practice & Research
AbbreviationPlan. Pr. Res.
ISSN (print)0269-7459
ISSN (online)1360-0583
ScopeGeography, Planning and Development

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