How to format your references using the Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Spurgeon, Drawing back the talent: Canada, Nature. 415 (2002) 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Z. Zhou, F. Zhang, A long-tailed, seed-eating bird from the Early Cretaceous of China, Nature. 418 (2002) 405–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
Y. Mo, K.T. Turner, I. Szlufarska, Friction laws at the nanoscale, Nature. 457 (2009) 1116–1119.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Zhang, S. Yan, R. Sluyter, W. Li, G. Alici, N.-T. Nguyen, Inertial particle separation by differential equilibrium positions in a symmetrical serpentine micro-channel, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4527.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Bartlett, The Experience of History, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
A. Lundström, C. Zhou, Y. von Friedrichs, E. Sundin, eds., Social Entrepreneurship: Leveraging Economic, Political, and Cultural Dimensions, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
L. Horváth, I.J. Rudas, Intelligent Content for Product Definition in RFLP Structure, in: H. Fujita, A. Selamat (Eds.), Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 13th International Conference, SoMeT 2014, Langkawi, Malaysia, September 22-24, 2014. Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures.

Blog post
J. Fang, See-Through Shrimp-Like Creature Has a Dozen Retinas in Each Eye, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, FCC: Rules and Policies for Local Multipoint Distribution Service and for Fixed Satellite Services, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. Hardison, Achieving Literacy Excellence through Identifying and Utilizing High Yield Strategies, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, An Opera Is Updated, and a Diva Is Displeased, New York Times. (2006) E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures
AbbreviationPhysica E Low Dimens. Syst. Nanostruct.
ISSN (print)1386-9477
ScopeElectronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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