How to format your references using the Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Corsi, Evolution pioneers: Lamarck’s reputation saved by his zoology, Nature. 461 (2009) 167.
A journal article with 2 authors
X. Wang, B. Huang, Computational study of in-plane phonon transport in Si thin films, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6399.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.D. Fortes, E. Suard, K.S. Knight, Negative linear compressibility and massive anisotropic thermal expansion in methanol monohydrate, Science. 331 (2011) 742–746.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X. Gan, H. Clevenson, C.-C. Tsai, L. Li, D. Englund, Nanophotonic filters and integrated networks in flexible 2D polymer photonic crystals, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2145.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Piantadosi, Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
E.C. Schirmer, J.I. de las Heras, eds., Cancer Biology and the Nuclear Envelope: Recent Advances May Elucidate Past Paradoxes, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Maehata, The Use of Lake Biwa and People’s Lifestyle, in: H. Kawanabe, M. Nishino, M. Maehata (Eds.), Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2012: pp. 309–369.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications.

Blog post
J. Davis, One Hundred Years On: The Science Of The Somme, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Effort to Modernize the System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
N.M. Dammann, Living in the edge: Community based governance in the aquatic terrestrial zone, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.S. Schmidt, In a Private Dinner, Trump Demanded Loyalty. Comey Demurred, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica C: Superconductivity and its applications
AbbreviationPhysica C Supercond.
ISSN (print)0921-4534
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles