How to format your references using the Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Zuk, Evolution. Dance like no one is watching, sing like no one is listening?, Science. 328 (2010) 1237–1238.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.M. Reilly, T.D. White, Hypaxial motor patterns and the function of epipubic bones in primitive mammals, Science. 299 (2003) 400–402.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.L. Golding, N.P. Staff, N. Spruston, Dendritic spikes as a mechanism for cooperative long-term potentiation, Nature. 418 (2002) 326–331.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, M.Y. Ivanov, High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules, Nature. 460 (2009) 972–977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Li, K. Marrongelle, Having Success with NSF, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
M.V. Hariharan, Modular Load Flow for Restructured Power Systems, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, Singapore, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
R.L. Taylor, E. Oñate, P.-A. Ubach, Finite Element Analysis of Membrane Structures, in: E. Oñate, B. Kröplin (Eds.), Textile Composites and Inflatable Structures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 47–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica B: Physics of Condensed Matter.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists Develop A Way To Visualise The Brain In Real-Time, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Opportunities for Improving Program Planning for Photovoltaic Research and Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Randall, Department of Children and Family Services workers’ knowledge of childhood obesity and services for obese children, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team, New York Times. (2017) B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica B: Physics of Condensed Matter
AbbreviationPhysica B Condens. Matter
ISSN (print)0921-4526
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles