How to format your references using the Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Bollen, Cell cycle: It takes three to find the exit, Nature. 517 (2015) 29–30.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Sharon, A. Grinvald, Dynamics and constancy in cortical spatiotemporal patterns of orientation processing, Science. 295 (2002) 512–515.
A journal article with 3 authors
L.R. Otterbein, P. Graceffa, R. Dominguez, The crystal structure of uncomplexed actin in the ADP state, Science. 293 (2001) 708–711.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Bessonov, M. Anokhina, C.L. Will, H. Urlaub, R. Lührmann, Isolation of an active step I spliceosome and composition of its RNP core, Nature. 452 (2008) 846–850.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Krimpmann, Principles of Group Accounting under IFRS, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
T.R. Roth-Berghofer, S. Schulz, D.B. Leake, eds., Modeling and Retrieval of Context: Second International Workshop, MRC 2005, Edinburgh, UK, July 31–August 1, 2005, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Yao, D. Guo, G. Yang, The Influence of Pantograph Aerodynamic Characteristics Caused by Its Shroud, in: Y.-Q. Ni, X.-W. Ye (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on High-Speed and Intercity Railways: Volume 2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 41–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Watch Hundreds Of Sharks In A Feeding Frenzy, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Small Business Administration: Mandated Planning for Loan Monitoring System Is Not Complete, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.C. Quintero, Constructing a Clinical Research Data Management System, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S.K. (nyt), World Briefing | Asia: Malaysia: Warplanes From Russia, New York Times. (2003) A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
AbbreviationPhysica A
ISSN (print)0378-4371
ScopeStatistics and Probability
Condensed Matter Physics

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