How to format your references using the Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Q. Wang, Rural students are being left behind in China, Nature. 510 (2014) 445.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.J. Bannister, T. Kouzarides, Reversing histone methylation, Nature. 436 (2005) 1103–1106.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Cacace, G. de Petris, A. Troiani, Experimental detection of tetranitrogen, Science. 295 (2002) 480–481.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.J. Wagers, R.I. Sherwood, J.L. Christensen, I.L. Weissman, Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells, Science. 297 (2002) 2256–2259.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.M. Bonem, Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Liñán Reyes, J.M. Flores Arias, J.J. González de la Rosa, J. Langer, F.J. Bellido Outeiriño, A. Moreno-Munñoz, eds., IT Revolutions: Third International ICST Conference, Córdoba, Spain, March 23-25, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
K.K. Mah, H.M. Cheng, Mechanics of Respiration, in: H.M. Cheng (Ed.), Learning and Teaching Tools for Basic and Clinical Respiratory Physiology, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 53–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

Blog post
E. Andrew, From Beyonce The Fly To Darth Vader The Beetle, Naming Species Can Help Save Them, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NHTSA: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Occupant Crash Protection, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.L. Vernold, Special education teacher resiliency: What keeps teachers in the field?, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Supreme Court Rebuffs a Challenge to New York’s Way of Picking Its Judges, New York Times. (2008) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
AbbreviationPhysica A
ISSN (print)0378-4371
ScopeStatistics and Probability
Condensed Matter Physics

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