How to format your references using the Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T.A. Cooper, Molecular biology. Neutralizing toxic RNA, Science. 325 (2009) 272–273.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Western, A.K. Behrensmeyer, Bone assemblages track animal community structure over 40 years in an African savanna ecosystem, Science. 324 (2009) 1061–1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
T.J. Kirn, B.A. Jude, R.K. Taylor, A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection, Nature. 438 (2005) 863–866.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A. Theobald, N.S. Oxtoby, M.A. Phillips, N.R. Champness, P.H. Beton, Controlling molecular deposition and layer structure with supramolecular surface assemblies, Nature. 424 (2003) 1029–1031.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.A. Smith, H. van de Waterbeemd, D.K. Walker, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism in Drug Design: SMITH: PHARMACOKINETICS AND METABOLISM IN DRUG DESIGN O-BK, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2006.
An edited book
V. Cutsuridis, B. Graham, S. Cobb, I. Vida, eds., Hippocampal Microcircuits: A Computational Modeler’s Resource Book, Springer, New York, NY, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Cerejeiras, Q. Chen, N. Gomes, S. Hartmann, Compressed Sensing with Nonlinear Fourier Atoms, in: S. Bernstein, U. Kähler, I. Sabadini, F. Sommen (Eds.), Modern Trends in Hypercomplex Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 47–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Ridiculously Enormous Alligator Captured On Camera, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Pell Grants for Prison Inmates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.J. Diaz Gonzalez, High-Pressure Study of Bio-inspired Multi-Functional Nanocomposites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Brantley, An Intergalactic Odyssey via Puppets, Puns and Knock-Knock Jokes, New York Times. (2016) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications
AbbreviationPhysica A
ISSN (print)0378-4371
ScopeStatistics and Probability
Condensed Matter Physics

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