How to format your references using the Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. W. Visser, Ocean science. Biomixing of the oceans?, Science, 2007, 316, 838–839.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. J. Matear and B. I. McNeil, Comment on ‘Preindustrial to modern interdecadal variability in coral reef pH’, Science, 2006, 314, 595.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Martinez-Mateo, D. Elkouss and V. Martin, Key reconciliation for high performance quantum key distribution, Sci. Rep., 2013, 3, 1576.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
P. Chamero, T. F. Marton, D. W. Logan, K. Flanagan, J. R. Cruz, A. Saghatelian, B. F. Cravatt and L. Stowers, Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour, Nature, 2007, 450, 899–902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. H. Nguyen, Leaders and Innovators, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
E. H. Estey, Acute Leukemias, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Rebeiro, D. Mukhopadhyay and S. Bhattacharya, in Timing Channels in Cryptography: A Micro-Architectural Perspective, eds. D. Mukhopadhyay and S. Bhattacharya, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015, pp. 71–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences.

Blog post
E. Andrew, New Battery Biodegrades Inside The Human Body,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Spectrum Management: Better Knowledge Needed to Take Advantage of Technologies That May Improve Spectrum Efficiency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. D. White, Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
P. Baker and M. D. Shear, New York Times, 2017, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePhotochemical & Photobiological Sciences
AbbreviationPhotochem. Photobiol. Sci.
ISSN (print)1474-905X
ISSN (online)1474-9092
ScopePhysical and Theoretical Chemistry

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