How to format your references using the Philosophy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guest, J. (2008). Ecology. How reefs respond to mass coral spawning. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5876), 621–623.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stark, C. P., & Stieglitz, M. (2000). Hydrology. The sting in a fractal tail. Nature, 403(6769), 493, 495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saavedra, S., Reed-Tsochas, F., & Uzzi, B. (2009). A simple model of bipartite cooperation for ecological and organizational networks. Nature, 457(7228), 463–466.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Egan, K. M., Lawson, J. A., Fries, S., Koller, B., Rader, D. J., Smyth, E. M., & Fitzgerald, G. A. (2004). COX-2-derived prostacyclin confers atheroprotection on female mice. Science (New York, N.Y.), 306(5703), 1954–1957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bâzu, M., & Băjenescu, T. (2011). Failure Analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bello, F., & Cotin, S. (Eds.). (2014). Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings (Vol. 8789). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, P.-C., & Kim, Y.-C. (2016). The Determinants of Strategy Formulation and Change in Foreign Subsidiaries and Their Functional Units. In Y.-C. Kim (Ed.), US Firms’ Business Competence in the Taiwanese IT Industry (pp. 135–181). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy & Technology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, August 8). A Urine Test Could Distinguish Between Bipolar Disorder And Depression. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Minicomputers (No. 090927). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blalock, J. M. (2014). The Links at St Andrews, Scotland A phenomenological hermeneutic exploration of golf’s primordial place (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2002, October 13). Neighbors Defend Park From a Soccer Invasion. New York Times, p. 148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guest 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Guest 2008; Stark and Stieglitz 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stark and Stieglitz 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Egan et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy & Technology
AbbreviationPhilos. Technol.
ISSN (print)2210-5433
ISSN (online)2210-5441
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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