How to format your references using the Philosophy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gille, S. T. (2002). Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5558), 1275–1277.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolow, A., & Jonas, D. M. (2004). Chemistry. Multidimensional snapshots of chemical dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1575–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sanderson, M. J., McMahon, M. M., & Steel, M. (2011). Terraces in phylogenetic tree space. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6041), 448–450.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yoshida, S., Handa, Y., Suzuki, T., Ogawa, M., Suzuki, M., Tamai, A., et al. (2006). Microtubule-severing activity of Shigella is pivotal for intercellular spreading. Science (New York, N.Y.), 314(5801), 985–989.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lundberg, U., & Cooper, C. L. (2010). The Science of Occupational Health. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Matteotti, R., & Ashley, S. W. (Eds.). (2011). Minimally Invasive Surgical Oncology: State-of- the-Art Cancer Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo, P. S., & Fejer, M. M. (2008). Microstructured Semiconductors for Mid-Infrared Nonlinear Optics. In M. Ebrahim-Zadeh & I. T. Sorokina (Eds.), Mid-Infrared Coherent Sources and Applications (pp. 149–168). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy & Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, May 31). Melting Ice And Satellites: How To Measure The Earth’s ‘Wiggle.’ IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1990). NASA ADP Procurement: Contracting and Market Share Information (No. IMTEC-90-39FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Woerner, L. C. (2010). Complicated grief: A case study of pathological bereavement (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B., Kramer, A. E., & McINTIRE, M. (2017, June 5). Bank in Kushner Meeting Wields Power for Kremlin. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gille 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gille 2002; Stolow and Jonas 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Stolow and Jonas 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Yoshida et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy & Technology
AbbreviationPhilos. Technol.
ISSN (print)2210-5433
ISSN (online)2210-5441
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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