How to format your references using the Philosophy & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophy & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clayton, J. (2004). RNA interference: the silent treatment. Nature, 431(7008), 599–605.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elser, J., & Bennett, E. (2011). Phosphorus cycle: A broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Noda, S., Chutinan, A., & Imada, M. (2000). Trapping and emission of photons by a single defect in a photonic bandgap structure. Nature, 407(6804), 608–610.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Mukhtasimova, N., Lee, W. Y., Wang, H.-L., & Sine, S. M. (2009). Detection and trapping of intermediate states priming nicotinic receptor channel opening. Nature, 459(7245), 451–454.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Khanlari, R., & Fard, M. S. (2015). FIDIC Plant and Design-Build Form of Contract Illustrated. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Masoudi-Nejad, A. (2013). Next Generation Sequencing and Sequence Assembly: Methodologies and Algorithms. (Z. Narimani & N. Hosseinkhan, Eds.) (Vol. 4). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zentes, J., Morschett, D., & Schramm-Klein, H. (2012). Online Retailing and Multichannel Retailing. In D. Morschett & H. Schramm-Klein (Eds.), Strategic Retail Management: Text and International Cases (pp. 71–91). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophy & Technology.

Blog post
Evans, K. (2016, July 15). This Interactive Map Shows Where People With HIV Live In The US — And It Points To Some Distressing Trends. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Spending Grant Funds More Efficiently Could Save Millions (No. PSAD-80-58). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuru, I. C. (2013). Time-Dependent Vehicle Routing and Assignment in No-Notice Evacuations (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, May 29). Mets’ Pitching Coach Offers Wisdom and Wit. New York Times, p. D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clayton 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Clayton 2004; Elser and Bennett 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elser and Bennett 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Mukhtasimova et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophy & Technology
AbbreviationPhilos. Technol.
ISSN (print)2210-5433
ISSN (online)2210-5441
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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