How to format your references using the Philosophia Scientiæ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia Scientiæ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn, E.
2015    Israel: Research without prejudice, Nature, 525 (7570) (September 24), S12-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Burgoyne, C. B., and S. E. G. Lea
2006    Psychology. Money is material, Science (New York, N.Y.), 314 (5802) (November 17), 1091–1092
A journal article with 3 authors
Reik, W., W. Dean, and J. Walter
2001    Epigenetic reprogramming in mammalian development, Science (New York, N.Y.), 293 (5532) (August 10), 1089–1093
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Azoulay, P., J. Graff-Zivin, B. Uzzi, D. Wang, H. Williams, J. A. Evans, G. Z. Jin, et al.
2018    Toward a more scientific science, Science (New York, N.Y.), 361 (6408) (September 21), 1194–1197

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharon, M., and M. Sharon
2015    Graphene, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., August 10
An edited book
Cuyper, C. D., and M. L. Pérez-Cotapos S (eds.)
2010    Dermatologic Complications with Body Art, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Kullaa, J.
2011    Vibration-Based Structural Health Monitoring Under Variable Environmental or Operational Conditions, in A. Deraemaeker and K. Worden (eds.), New Trends in Vibration Based Structural Health Monitoring, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences; Vienna: Springer, 107–181

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia Scientiæ.

Blog post
Luntz, S.
2014    PETA Runs Deceptive Campaign About Autism, IFLScience, IFLScience, June 1


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1980    Computers in Government: We Couldn’t Do Without Them, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 1

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miles, C. S.
2015    Elicitation of a Program’s Behaviors Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C.
1998    The Joy of a ‘Girl Racer’ and a Wish for More, New York Times, August 23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia Scientiæ
AbbreviationPhilos. Sci. (Paris)
ISSN (print)1281-2463
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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