How to format your references using the Philosophia Scientiæ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia Scientiæ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fisman, R.
2014    Health care policy. Straining emergency rooms by expanding health insurance, Science (New York, N.Y.), 343 (6168) (January 17), 252–253
A journal article with 2 authors
Hutt, D., and W. E. Balch
2010    Cell Biology. The proteome in balance, Science (New York, N.Y.), 329 (5993) (August 13), 766–767
A journal article with 3 authors
Ye, F., M. J. Burns, and M. J. Naughton
2014    Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos, Scientific reports, 4 (December 1), 7267
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Marshall, L., H. Helgadóttir, M. Mölle, and J. Born
2006    Boosting slow oscillations during sleep potentiates memory, Nature, 444 (7119) (November 30), 610–613

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow, J., E. Kohn, J. Mondragon-Gilmore, and J. Eggenschwiler
2009    CliffsNotes® Praxis I®: PPST®, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., November 23
An edited book
Boehncke, W.-H., and H. H. Radeke (eds.)
2007    Biologics in General Medicine, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Kuchta, V., and M. Manulis
2015    Rerandomizable Threshold Blind Signatures, in M. Yung, L. Zhu, and Y. Yang (eds.), Trusted Systems: 6th International Conference, INTRUST 2014, Beijing, China, December 16-17, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Cham: Springer International Publishing, 70–89

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia Scientiæ.

Blog post
Andrews, R.
2016    King Tutankhamun’s Dagger Was Literally Out Of This World, IFLScience, IFLScience, June 1


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
2009    NASA: Constellation Program Cost and Schedule Will Remain Uncertain Until a Sound Business Case Is Established, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 26

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chatterji, S.
2016    A novel agent-based dynamic load balancing model for cloud networks Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casey, N., and S. Abad
2017    Pope Urges Colombians To Accept Peace Accord, New York Times, September 7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia Scientiæ
AbbreviationPhilos. Sci. (Paris)
ISSN (print)1281-2463
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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