How to format your references using the Philosophia Scientiæ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia Scientiæ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rosenbaum, T. F.
2000 A new spin on magnets, Nature, 404 (6778) (April 6), 556–557
A journal article with 2 authors
Thermann, R., and M. W. Hentze
2007 Drosophila miR2 induces pseudo-polysomes and inhibits translation initiation, Nature, 447 (7146) (June 14), 875–878
A journal article with 3 authors
Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M., M. Sakbodin, and Z. Wang
2006 Regenerative adsorption and removal of H2S from hot fuel gas streams by rare earth oxides, Science (New York, N.Y.), 312 (5779) (June 9), 1508–1510
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ku, Z., Y. Rong, M. Xu, T. Liu, and H. Han
2013 Full printable processed mesoscopic CH₃NH₃PbI₃/TiO₂ heterojunction solar cells with carbon counter electrode, Scientific reports, 3 (November 4), 3132

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bobrow, J., E. Kohn, J. Mondragon-Gilmore, and J. Eggenschwiler
2009 CliffsNotes® Praxis I®: PPST®, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., November 23
An edited book
Bagnard, D. (ed.)
2007 Axon Growth and Guidance, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology; vol. 621New York, NY: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Fukumoto, S., A. Yamada, T. Iwamoto, and T. Nakamura
2010 Dental epithelium proliferation and differentiation regulated by ameloblastin, in T. Sasano and O. Suzuki (eds.), Interface Oral Health Science 2009, Tokyo: Springer Japan, 33–38

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia Scientiæ.

Blog post
Davis, J.
2015 Possible Major Advancement In Skin Cancer Treatment, IFLScience, IFLScience, June 1


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
1993 FAA Evacuation Standards, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, June 8

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salie, A.
2008 Servant-minded leadership and work satisfaction in Islamic organizations: A correlational mixed study Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M. J. O.
2016 101 Years Ago: ‘The Birth of a Nation’ Had its First Screenings, New York Times, February 5

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia Scientiæ
AbbreviationPhilos. Sci. (Paris)
ISSN (print)1281-2463
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

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