How to format your references using the Philosophia Scientiæ citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Philosophia Scientiæ. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knight, J.
2001    Meet the Herod bug, Nature, 412 (6842) (July 5), 12–14
A journal article with 2 authors
Macfarlane, A., and G. Martin
2004    Beyond the ivory tower. A world of glass, Science (New York, N.Y.), 305 (5689) (September 3), 1407–1408
A journal article with 3 authors
Oliveira, E. A., J. S. Andrade Jr, and H. A. Makse
2014    Large cities are less green, Scientific reports, 4 (February 28), 4235
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Morris, R. M., M. S. Rappé, S. A. Connon, K. L. Vergin, W. A. Siebold, C. A. Carlson, and S. J. Giovannoni
2002    SAR11 clade dominates ocean surface bacterioplankton communities, Nature, 420 (6917), 806–810

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Passarelli, D.
2012    Trading Options Greeks, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., September 17
An edited book
Huang, Y.
2014    Geo-disaster Modeling and Analysis: An SPH-based Approach,. Eds. Z. Dai and W. Zhang Springer Natural HazardsBerlin, Heidelberg: Springer
A chapter in an edited book
Román, J. A., S. Rodríguez, and F. de la Prieta
2016    Improving the Distribution of Services in MAS, in J. Bajo, M. J. Escalona, S. Giroux, P. Hoffa-Dąbrowska, V. Julián, P. Novais, N. Sánchez-Pi, R. Unland, and R. Azambuja-Silveira (eds.), Highlights of Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-Agent Systems. The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2016, Sevilla, Spain, June 1-3, 2016. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science; Cham: Springer International Publishing, 37–46

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Philosophia Scientiæ.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J.
2015    NASA Forced To Hand $490 Million To Russia For Flights To The ISS And Their Chief Is Pissed, IFLScience, IFLScience, August 8


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office
2003    Business Modernization: Improvements Needed in Management of NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, April 30

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gary, M.
2017    Home Range and Habitat Use of Juvenile Green Turtles in a Shallow Tidal Environment Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chozick, A.
2013    Jimmy Wales Is Not an Internet Billionare, New York Times, June 27

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titlePhilosophia Scientiæ
AbbreviationPhilos. Sci. (Paris)
ISSN (print)1281-2463
ScopeHistory and Philosophy of Science

Other styles