How to format your references using the Phase Transitions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phase Transitions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D. World view: Not by experts alone. Nature. 2010;466:688.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang T, Shadlen MN. Probabilistic reasoning by neurons. Nature. 2007;447:1075–1080.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sibanda BL, Chirgadze DY, Blundell TL. Crystal structure of DNA-PKcs reveals a large open-ring cradle comprised of HEAT repeats. Nature. 2010;463:118–121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Miller DL, Kubista KD, Rutter GM, et al. Observing the quantization of zero mass carriers in graphene. Science. 2009;324:924–927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen WR, Friedman EA. Labor and Delivery Care. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
Kahveci M, Orgill M, editors. Affective Dimensions in Chemistry Education. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Quarteroni A, Saleri F, Gervasio P. Linear systems. In: Saleri F, Gervasio P, editors. Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. p. 137–191.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phase Transitions.

Blog post
Andrew E. How We Found ‘Prehistoric Beaver’ That Helped Mammals Inherit Earth After Dinosaurs Were Wiped Out [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA’s Choice of a Location for Its Proposed Lunar Curatorial Facility. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976. Report No.: PSAD-76-130. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim G. Development of a nutrition-based curriculum for farm-to-school programs for the fourth and fifth grades [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. From the Mosh Pit To a Life in Balance. New York Times. 2012 Nov 15;E11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhase Transitions
AbbreviationPhase Transitions
ISSN (print)0141-1594
ISSN (online)1029-0338
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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