How to format your references using the Phase Transitions citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Phase Transitions. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sita LR. Chemistry. Tin takes ethylene on--and off. Science. 2009;325:1631–1632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oka T, McCall BJ. Astronomy. Disclosing identities in diffuse interstellar bands. Science. 2011;331:293–294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barry L, Craig GC, Thuburn J. Poleward heat transport by the atmospheric heat engine. Nature. 2002;415:774–777.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Evans RL, Hirth G, Baba K, et al. Geophysical evidence from the MELT area for compositional controls on oceanic plates. Nature. 2005;437:249–252.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fortey RA, Bruton DL. Lower Ordovician Trilobites of the Kirtonryggen Formation, Spitsbergen. Norway: The Lethaia Foundation; 2013.
An edited book
Asher J, Banks D, Scheuren FJ, editors. Statistical Methods for Human Rights. New York, NY: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Valiev RZ. Applications of Severe Plastic Deformations for Materials Nanostructuring Aimed at Advanced Properties. In: Zhu YT, Varyukhin V, editors. Nanostructured Materials by High-Pressure Severe Plastic Deformation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Phase Transitions.

Blog post
Andrew E. Of Cats And Cliffs: The Ethical Dilemmas Of The Driverless Car [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Theft From Airline Passenger Baggage. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994. Report No.: OSI-94-18R. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Borchardt GM. Making D.C. Democracy’s Capital: Local Activism, the “Federal State”, and the Struggle for Civil Rights in Washington, D.C [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. Review: ‘Finding Babel’ Retraces a Celebrated Grandfather’s Footsteps. New York Times. 2016 Oct 27;C7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePhase Transitions
AbbreviationPhase Transitions
ISSN (print)0141-1594
ISSN (online)1029-0338
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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