How to format your references using the Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pimentel D. Biological control of invading species. Science. 2000 Aug 11;289(5481):869c.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anastasiadou E, Slack FJ. Cancer. Malicious exosomes. Science. 2014 Dec 19;346(6216):1459–60.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wieman CE, Adams WK, Perkins KK. PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science. 2008 Oct 31;322(5902):682–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Riethman HC, Xiang Z, Paul S, Morse E, Hu XL, Flint J, et al. Integration of telomere sequences with the draft human genome sequence. Nature. 2001 Feb 15;409(6822):948–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mishra AR. Cellular Technologies for Emerging Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2010.
An edited book
Baer S. Transport Spectroscopy of Confined Fractional Quantum Hall Systems. 1st ed. 2015. Ensslin K, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. XIV, 308 p. 153 illus., 116 illus. in color. (Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences; vol. 183).
A chapter in an edited book
Gonzalez D, Elias M, Chabrière E. The DING Family of Phosphate Binding Proteins in Inflammatory Diseases. In: Camps J, editor. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Non-communicable Diseases - Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives in Therapeutics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 27–32. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Neonicotinoids Linked To Wild Bee And Butterfly Declines In Europe And US. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FBI: Advanced Communications Technologies Pose Wiretapping Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jul. Report No.: IMTEC-92-68BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards JW. The Relation Between Expressed Emotion and Adolescent Psychopathology [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus PS. Cambio de vidas: Los hermanos perdidos de Bogotá. New York Times. 2015 Jul 12;MM34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)0277-0008
ISSN (online)1875-9114
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles