How to format your references using the Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Narbonne GM. Modular construction of early Ediacaran complex life forms. Science. 2004 Aug 20;305(5687):1141–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhattacharya K, James RD. Applied physics. The material is the machine. Science. 2005 Jan 7;307(5706):53–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nussbaumer AD, Fisher CR, Bright M. Horizontal endosymbiont transmission in hydrothermal vent tubeworms. Nature. 2006 May 18;441(7091):345–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chu L, Li L, Su J, Tu F, Liu N, Gao Y. A general method for preparing anatase TiO₂ treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 20;4:4420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ibe EH. Terrestrial Radiation Effects in ULSI Devices and Electronic Systems. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Sillitti A, Hazzan O, Bache E, Albaladejo X, editors. Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 12th International Conference, XP 2011, Madrid, Spain, May 10-13, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XIII, 333 p. (Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing; vol. 77).
A chapter in an edited book
Stöhr J. Prion Protein Aggregation and FibrillogenesisIn Vitro. In: Harris JR, editor. Protein Aggregation and Fibrillogenesis in Cerebral and Systemic Amyloid Disease. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 91–108. (Subcellular Biochemistry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bacteria Can Take Up Ancient DNA [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2013 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Forest Service Not Ready to Acquire a Nationwide Geographic Information System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 May. Report No.: T-IMTEC-90-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tanner-Anderson SL. “The Road Less Traveled”: The Female’s Journey to the State Superintendency [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Weak Sales Doom Black Panther Spinoff. New York Times. 2017 May 17;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)0277-0008
ISSN (online)1875-9114
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles