How to format your references using the Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crous CJ. Judge research impact on a local scale. Nature. 2014 Sep 4;513(7516):7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith MR, Caron JB. Hallucigenia’s head and the pharyngeal armature of early ecdysozoans. Nature. 2015 Jul 2;523(7558):75–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Choi WY, Giraldez AJ, Schier AF. Target protectors reveal dampening and balancing of Nodal agonist and antagonist by miR-430. Science. 2007 Oct 12;318(5848):271–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thibert C, Teillet MA, Lapointe F, Mazelin L, Le Douarin NM, Mehlen P. Inhibition of neuroepithelial patched-induced apoptosis by sonic hedgehog. Science. 2003 Aug 8;301(5634):843–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Meier HB, Marthinsen JE, Gantenbein PA. Swiss Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Moura Bernardes A, Siqueira Rodrigues MA, Zoppas Ferreira J, editors. Electrodialysis and Water Reuse: Novel Approaches. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. X, 144 p. 25 illus., 6 illus. in color. (Topics in Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Lin H. Stratifying Winning Positions in Parity Games. In: Hee KM van, Valk R, editors. Applications and Theory of Petri Nets: 29th International Conference, PETRI NETS 2008, Xi’an, China, June 23-27, 2008 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 9–11. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Davis J. Adorable Slow Lorises Will Go For The Most Potent Of Drinks. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Remanufactured Parts in the Federal Vehicle Fleet Is Based On a Variety of Factors. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Mar. Report No.: GAO-13-316R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oliver CN. The relationship between length of kindergarten day and student literacy and math achievement [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fink S, Risen J. Suit Aims to Hold Contractors Accountable for C.I.A. Torture. New York Times. 2016 Nov 28;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)0277-0008
ISSN (online)1875-9114
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles