How to format your references using the Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage N. Materials science: Super carbon. Nature. 2012 Mar 14;483(7389):S30-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mourou G, Tajima T. Physics. More intense, shorter pulses. Science. 2011 Jan 7;331(6013):41–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Purdy TP, Peterson RW, Regal CA. Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object. Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):801–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gillessen S, Genzel R, Fritz TK, Quataert E, Alig C, Burkert A, et al. A gas cloud on its way towards the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre. Nature. 2011 Dec 14;481(7379):51–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Richards T. Investing Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Giacobini M, Brabazon A, Cagnoni S, Caro GAD, Drechsler R, Ekárt A, et al., editors. Applications of Evolutionary Computing: EvoWorkshops 2008: EvoCOMNET, EvoFIN, EvoHOT, EvoIASP, EvoMUSART, EvoNUM, EvoSTOC, and EvoTransLog, Naples, Italy, March 26-28, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. XXV, 704 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 4974).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhu X, Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R. Software Defined Anything—From Software-Defined Hardware to Software Defined Anything. In: Song B, Ni Y, Ren Y, Li R, editors. Business Trends in the Digital Era: Evolution of Theories and Applications. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 83–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Andrew E. Discovery Of “Good Fat” Molecules Could Lead To New Diabetes Treatment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy Research and Development Administration’s Contingency Plan for Constructing Additional Enrichment Capacity at Portsmouth, Ohio. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Nov. Report No.: RED-76-55.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia CA. Tracking chemistry self-efficacy and achievement in a preparatory chemistry course [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG. Zombies Revived in a Walking Dead Digital Comic. New York Times. 2016 Apr 21;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)0277-0008
ISSN (online)1875-9114
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles