How to format your references using the Pharmacotherapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacotherapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichten M. Molecular biology. Putting the breaks on meiosis. Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Abramson J, Vartanian AS. Biochemistry. Watch water flow. Science. 2013 Jun 14;340(6138):1294–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cardinale BJ, Palmer MA, Collins SL. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature. 2002 Jan 24;415(6870):426–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Paquay FS, Ravizza GE, Dalai TK, Peucker-Ehrenbrink B. Determining chondritic impactor size from the marine osmium isotope record. Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):214–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch V. Patente, Marken, Design von A bis Z. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2009.
An edited book
Ma D. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters: Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems. Bondade R, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. X, 178 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Izmailov I, Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S. Optical Vortices in Ring and Non-ring Interferometers and a Model of the Digital Communication System. In: Poizner B, Romanov I, Smolskiy S, editors. Cryptology Transmitted Message Protection: From Deterministic Chaos up to Optical Vortices. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 259–332. (Signals and Communication Technology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacotherapy.

Blog post
Luntz S. Why Banning Flights From Ebola-Infected Areas Is A Terrible Idea [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Selected Information on Bypass of Local Telephone Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1986 Feb. Report No.: RCED-86-100.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pierre RR. A Phenomenological Study of the Boomerang-Employment Experience of Scientists and Engineers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. ‘The Cher Show’ Is Set for Broadway. New York Times. 2017 Sep 28;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacotherapy
ISSN (print)0277-0008
ISSN (online)1875-9114
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles