How to format your references using the Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gasse F (2002) Paleoclimate. Kilimanjaro’s secrets revealed. Science 298:548–549
A journal article with 2 authors
Whorton MR, MacKinnon R (2013) X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex. Nature 498:190–197
A journal article with 3 authors
Hollingsworth RG, Armstrong JW, Campbell E (2002) Caffeine as a repellent for slugs and snails. Nature 417:915–916
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bausch AR, Bowick MJ, Cacciuto A, Dinsmore AD, Hsu MF, Nelson DR, Nikolaides MG, Travesset A, Weitz DA (2003) Grain boundary scars and spherical crystallography. Science 299:1716–1718

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minenna M (2016) The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Luderer B (2005) Mathematical Formulas for Economists, Second Edition. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Novo J, Sierra CV, Santos J, Penedo MG (2014) Using Evolved Artificial Neural Networks for Providing an Emergent Segmentation with an Active Net Model. In: Tweedale JW, Jain LC (eds) Recent Advances in Knowledge-based Paradigms and Applications: Enhanced Applications Using Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Techniques. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 57–72

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Why The Native American Pipeline Resistance In North Dakota Is About Climate Justice. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Information Technology: Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Atchley D (2009) Interventions, perceptions of accommodations, and motivating factors impacting the achievement and successful mainstreaming transition of English language learners. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams J (2017) In a Watch’s Deadly Glow, a Fight for Justice. New York Times C2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
AbbreviationPflugers Arch.
ISSN (print)0031-6768
ISSN (online)1432-2013
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Physiology (medical)

Other styles