How to format your references using the Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zars T (2012) Physiology. She said no, pass me a beer. Science 335:1309–1310
A journal article with 2 authors
Steinhardt PJ, Turok N (2002) A cyclic model of the universe. Science 296:1436–1439
A journal article with 3 authors
Selmecki A, Forche A, Berman J (2006) Aneuploidy and isochromosome formation in drug-resistant Candida albicans. Science 313:367–370
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rosskopf D, Bornhorst A, Rimmbach C, Schwahn C, Kayser A, Krüger A, Tessmann G, Geissler I, Kroemer HK, Völzke H (2007) Comment on “A common genetic variant is associated with adult and childhood obesity.” Science 315:187; author reply 187

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Talbot DB (2012) Frequency Acquisition Techniques for Phase Locked Loops. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Lin S, Huang X (2011) Advanced Research on Computer Education, Simulation and Modeling: International Conference, CESM 2011, Wuhan, China, June 18-19, 2011. Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Chan K, Poernomo I (2008) Consistent Metric Usage: From Design to Deployment. In: Eusgeld I, Freiling FC, Reussner R (eds) Dependability Metrics: Advanced Lectures. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 19–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) DNA Nanobots Set To Seek and Destroy Cancer Cells In Human Trial. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1975) Contractors’ Independent Research and Development Program--Issues and Alternatives. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boylan M (2010) Acute physiological resonses to yoga activity in a hot environment. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) N.F.L.-Approved Therapist For Fans Draws Scrutiny. New York Times B11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
AbbreviationPflugers Arch.
ISSN (print)0031-6768
ISSN (online)1432-2013
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Physiology (medical)

Other styles