How to format your references using the Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology (Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami GF (2009) Astronomy. Two missions, one microquasar. Science 326:1490–1491
A journal article with 2 authors
Blunier T, Brook EJ (2001) Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science 291:109–112
A journal article with 3 authors
Dodds PS, Muhamad R, Watts DJ (2003) An experimental study of search in global social networks. Science 301:827–829
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fukuda S, Toh H, Hase K, Oshima K, Nakanishi Y, Yoshimura K, Tobe T, Clarke JM, Topping DL, Suzuki T, Taylor TD, Itoh K, Kikuchi J, Morita H, Hattori M, Ohno H (2011) Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature 469:543–547

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L, Fortunato E (2012) Transparent Oxide Electronics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Reid AD, Hart EP, Peters MA (2014) A Companion to Research in Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Vailati-Riboni M, Elolimy A, Loor JJ (2016) Nutritional Systems Biology to Elucidate Adaptations in Lactation Physiology of Dairy Cows. In: Kadarmideen HN (ed) Systems Biology in Animal Production and Health, Vol. 2. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 97–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Did This Chinese Billionaire Hide 6% Of The World’s Aluminum In Mexico To Cheat The Markets? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Implementation Is Under Way, but Enhanced Technical Oversight and Performance Measures Are Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Estrada Marroquin EM (2013) Using support groups to help kinship caregivers transition youth to safe and productive community living: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2016) Roll Over, Beyoncé: Chuck Berry’s Surprise. New York Times C4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 5, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
AbbreviationPflugers Arch.
ISSN (print)0031-6768
ISSN (online)1432-2013
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Physiology (medical)

Other styles