How to format your references using the Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Soderblom DR (2009) Astronomy. How old is that star? Science 323:45–46
A journal article with 2 authors
Barth C, Reichling M (2001) Imaging the atomic arrangements on the high-temperature reconstructed alpha-Al2O3(0001) surface. Nature 414:54–57
A journal article with 3 authors
Neale MJ, Pan J, Keeney S (2005) Endonucleolytic processing of covalent protein-linked DNA double-strand breaks. Nature 436:1053–1057
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Penterman R, Klink SI, de Koning H, Nisato G, Broer DJ (2002) Single-substrate liquid-crystal displays by photo-enforced stratification. Nature 417:55–58

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi MH (2003) Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Zaidi MK (2007) Wastewater Reuse–Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Kaidalov AB (2006) MULTIPLE PRODUCTION IN NUCLEAR COLLISIONS. In: Čechák T, Jenkovszky L, Karpenko I (eds) Nuclear Science and Safety in Europe. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 69–79

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) What’s With All The Red Spots On The Olympic Athletes? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Information Resources: HCFA Must Better Justify Further Data Center Expansion. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yang SJ (2014) Adapting Korean Cinderella Folklore as Fairy Tales for Children. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Child Custody Fight May Sideline Azarenka. New York Times B7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 5, 7, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
AbbreviationPflugers Arch.
ISSN (print)0031-6768
ISSN (online)1432-2013
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Physiology (medical)

Other styles