How to format your references using the Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Klug DD (2001) Thermodynamics. Glassy Water. Science 294:2305–2306
A journal article with 2 authors
Bouziat R, Jabri B (2015) IMMUNOLOGY. Breaching the gut-vascular barrier. Science 350:742–743
A journal article with 3 authors
Holt BF 3rd, Belkhadir Y, Dangl JL (2005) Antagonistic control of disease resistance protein stability in the plant immune system. Science 309:929–932
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang Y, Zhu X, Torelli AT, Lee M, Dzikovski B, Koralewski RM, Wang E, Freed J, Krebs C, Ealick SE, Lin H (2010) Diphthamide biosynthesis requires an organic radical generated by an iron-sulphur enzyme. Nature 465:891–896

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baguley D, Andersson G, McFerran D, McKenna L (2013) Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approach. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Heshmati A (2015) The Development of Renewable Energy Sources and its Significance for the Environment. Springer, Singapore
A chapter in an edited book
Jamal J-A, Roberts JA (2016) Aminoglycoside Dosing in Obesity. In: Zaidi STR, Roberts JA (eds) Drug Dosing in Obesity: Volume I: Antimicrobials. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 39–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) An Immense Spiral Arm Could Encircle The Entire Milky Way. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Focus Continued Attention on Implementing Reform Law. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Diaz Gonzalez AJ (2017) High-Pressure Study of Bio-inspired Multi-Functional Nanocomposites Using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2016) Bills to Empower Puerto Rico to Shed Debt Face Likely G.O.P. Opposition. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3, 4].
This sentence cites four references [3, 5, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology
AbbreviationPflugers Arch.
ISSN (print)0031-6768
ISSN (online)1432-2013
ScopeClinical Biochemistry
Physiology (medical)

Other styles