How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Friedman, Matt. 2009. “Paleontology. Emerging onto a Tangled Bank.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5925): 341–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brosnan, Sarah F., and Frans B. M. de Waal. 2014. “Evolution of Responses to (Un)Fairness.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6207): 1251776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scatena, L. F., M. G. Brown, and G. L. Richmond. 2001. “Water at Hydrophobic Surfaces: Weak Hydrogen Bonding and Strong Orientation Effects.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5518): 908–912.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zeng, Ning, Yihui Ding, Jiahua Pan, Huijun Wang, and Jay Gregg. 2008. “Sustainable Development. Climate Change--the Chinese Challenge.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5864): 730–731.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barron, E. N. 2013. Game Theory. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Massi, Daniela, ed. 2016. Dermatopathology. Encyclopedia of Pathology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Clack, Jennifer A., and Jason S. Anderson. 2016. “Early Tetrapods: Experimenting with Form and Function.” In Evolution of the Vertebrate Ear: Evidence from the Fossil Record, edited by Jennifer A. Clack, Richard R. Fay, and Arthur N. Popper, 71–105. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “‘Us Versus Them’ Root Of Racist Behavior Found In Old World Primates.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Safety: FAA Oversight of Aviation Repair Stations. T-RCED-98-188. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Delmont, Linda Owens. 2012. “Wings Pumping, Wings Stilled.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2012. “For Equestrian Event, Course Bursts From an Imagination.” New York Times, July 30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Friedman 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Friedman 2009; Brosnan and de Waal 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brosnan and de Waal 2014)
  • Three authors: (Scatena, Brown, and Richmond 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zeng et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

Other styles