How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin, Virginia. 2002. “Poor Nations Seek New Biodiversity Deal.” Nature 415 (6875): 949.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rioux, John D., and Abul K. Abbas. 2005. “Paths to Understanding the Genetic Basis of Autoimmune Disease.” Nature 435 (7042): 584–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kumarevel, Thirumananseri, Hiroshi Mizuno, and Penmetcha K. R. Kumar. 2005. “Structural Basis of HutP-Mediated Anti-Termination and Roles of the Mg2+ Ion and L-Histidine Ligand.” Nature 434 (7030): 183–191.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hu, Kuang, Joe Carroll, Sergei Fedorovich, Colin Rickman, Andrei Sukhodub, and Bazbek Davletov. 2002. “Vesicular Restriction of Synaptobrevin Suggests a Role for Calcium in Membrane Fusion.” Nature 415 (6872): 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, Michael H. 2003. Settleability Problems and Loss of Solids in the Activated Sludge Process. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Viswanathan, Akila N., Christian Kirisits, Beth E. Erickson, and Richard Pötter, eds. 2011. Gynecologic Radiation Therapy: Novel Approaches to Image-Guidance and Management. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Horton, Keith. 2010. “The Epistemic Problem: Potential Solutions.” In Ethical Questions and International NGOs: An Exchange between Philosophers and NGOs, edited by Chris Roche and Keith Horton, 87–118. Library of Ethics and Applied Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Mouse vs. Scorpion- Who Do You Think Wins?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. No Child Left Behind Act: Most Students with Disabilities Participated in Statewide Assessments, but Inclusion Options Could Be Improved. GAO-05-618. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Barbeau, Sean J. 2012. “A Location-Aware Architecture Supporting Intelligent Real-Time Mobile Applications.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, John. 2016. “A Hurricane That’s Hard to Predict, Even for a Veteran Storm Watcher.” New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gewin 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gewin 2002; Rioux and Abbas 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rioux and Abbas 2005)
  • Three authors: (Kumarevel, Mizuno, and Kumar 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hu et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

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