How to format your references using the Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Young, Linda. 2015. “Photonics: A Stable Narrow-Band X-Ray Laser.” Nature 524 (7566): 424–425.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gestwicki, Jason E., and Laura L. Kiessling. 2002. “Inter-Receptor Communication through Arrays of Bacterial Chemoreceptors.” Nature 415 (6867): 81–84.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaiser, Shari M., Harmit S. Malik, and Michael Emerman. 2007. “Restriction of an Extinct Retrovirus by the Human TRIM5alpha Antiviral Protein.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5832): 1756–1758.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, Chang-Zheng, Ling Li, Harvey F. Lodish, and David P. Bartel. 2004. “MicroRNAs Modulate Hematopoietic Lineage Differentiation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5654): 83–86.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Albalate, Amparo, and Wolfgang Minker. 2013. Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wada, Hajime, and Norio Murata, eds. 2010. Lipids in Photosynthesis: Essential and Regulatory Functions. Vol. 30. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Daim, Tugrul U., Lokesh Honnappa, Mamatha Murthy, Claudiu Rusnac, and Chakaphan Pornsatit. 2015. “Technological Assessment of Emerging Technologies in Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy.” In Policies and Programs for Sustainable Energy Innovations: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, edited by Tugrul U. Daim, Jisun Kim, Ibrahim Iskin, Rimal Abu Taha, and Kevin C. van Blommestein, 83–105. Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Perspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “The Myth Of The ‘Singing Snakes’ Turns Out To Be A New Frog Species.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2016. Smartphone Data: Information and Issues Regarding Surreptitious Tracking Apps That Can Facilitate Stalking. GAO-16-317. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dooling, Shannon Marie. 2013. “Like A Unicorn in Captivity.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2017. “Comics Series Ending.” New York Times, July 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Young 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Young 2015; Gestwicki and Kiessling 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gestwicki and Kiessling 2002)
  • Three authors: (Kaiser, Malik, and Emerman 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerspectives: Policy and Practice in Higher Education
ISSN (print)1360-3108
ISSN (online)1460-7018

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