How to format your references using the Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion, R. (2000). AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY MEETING: Cool Comets, Barren Clusters, and a Maxed-Out Universe. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288(5474), 2121–2124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Khoury, M. J., & Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2014). Medicine. Big data meets public health. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6213), 1054–1055.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lykke-Andersen, J., Shu, M. D., & Steitz, J. A. (2001). Communication of the position of exon-exon junctions to the mRNA surveillance machinery by the protein RNPS1. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5536), 1836–1839.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Chen, K.-Y., Cong, B., Wing, R., Vrebalov, J., & Tanksley, S. D. (2007). Changes in regulation of a transcription factor lead to autogamy in cultivated tomatoes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5850), 643–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller, G. (2012). Geotechnik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Hessayon, A. (Ed.). (2016). Jane Lead and her Transnational Legacy. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Arnold, V. I. (2014). On the topology of three-dimensional steady flows of an ideal fluid. In A. B. Givental, B. A. Khesin, A. N. Varchenko, V. A. Vassiliev, & O. Y. Viro (Eds.), Vladimir I. Arnold - Collected Works: Hydrodynamics, Bifurcation Theory, and Algebraic Geometry 1965-1972 (pp. 25–28). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 3). Liberia Hit with More Ebola Cases as Virus Resurfaces. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Communications Commission: Review of the Commission’s Regulations Governing Attribution Ownership Rule (OGC-00-1). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brandom, B. M. (2009). Spiritual and emotional needs of young adults who are members of mainstream Protestant churches [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Biersdorfer, J. D., & Couturier, K. (2017, March 31). Treasure Your Photos and Music? A Guide to Backing Up Critical Data. New York Times, B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Irion, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Irion, 2000; Khoury & Ioannidis, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Khoury & Ioannidis, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Lykke-Andersen et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Chen et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
AbbreviationPersonal. Disord.
ISSN (print)1949-2715
ISSN (online)1949-2723
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

Other styles