How to format your references using the Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glass, L. (2003). Obituary: Arthur T. Winfree (1942-2002). Nature, 421(6918), 34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luo, C., & Ecker, J. R. (2015). Epigenetics. Exceptional epigenetics in the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6239), 1094–1095.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghimire, A., Shafran, E., & Gerton, J. M. (2014). Using a sharp metal tip to control the polarization and direction of emission from a quantum dot. Scientific Reports, 4, 6456.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kato, M., Mizuno, K., Crozier, A., Fujimura, T., & Ashihara, H. (2000). Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves. Nature, 406(6799), 956–957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wright, D. (2016). Using Commercial Contracts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sessions, J. (Ed.). (2007). Harvesting Operations in the Tropics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Navarro-Brotons, V. (2013). Matter and Form in Sixteenth-Century Spain: Some Case Studies. In D. Garber (Ed.), The Mechanization of Natural Philosophy (pp. 99–116). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 5). Rare Facial Tumor Found For First Time On Duck-Billed Dwarf Dinosaur. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2013). Army Networks: Opportunities Exist to Better Utilize Results from Network Integration Evaluations (No. GAO-13-711). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pettengill, J. B. (2010). Elucidating the macro- and micro-evolutionary relationships of the federally listed endangered species Agalinis acuta (Orobanchaceae) (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. (2017, April 24). Profit or Loss. New York Times, p. BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glass, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Glass, 2003; Luo & Ecker, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luo & Ecker, 2015)
  • Three authors: (Ghimire, Shafran, & Gerton, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kato, Mizuno, Crozier, Fujimura, & Ashihara, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePersonality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment
AbbreviationPersonal. Disord.
ISSN (print)1949-2715
ISSN (online)1949-2723
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health
Clinical Psychology

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