How to format your references using the Performance Enhancement & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Enhancement & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adrian, R. J. (2010). Applied physics. Closing in on models of wall turbulence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 329(5988), 155–156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clausen, J., & Junge, W. (2004). Detection of an intermediate of photosynthetic water oxidation. Nature, 430(6998), 480–483.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scholl, J. A., Koh, A. L., & Dionne, J. A. (2012). Quantum plasmon resonances of individual metallic nanoparticles. Nature, 483(7390), 421–427.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Korobkova, E., Emonet, T., Vilar, J. M. G., Shimizu, T. S., & Cluzel, P. (2004). From molecular noise to behavioural variability in a single bacterium. Nature, 428(6982), 574–578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G. (2005). Virtual Private Networking. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
An, A., Matwin, S., Raś, Z. W., & Ślęzak, D. (Eds.). (2008). Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 17th International Symposium, ISMIS 2008 Toronto, Canada, May 20-23, 2008 Proceedings (Vol. 4994). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Picozza, E. (2016). Public Law and Private Law Issues. In E. Picozza (Ed.), Neurolaw: An Introduction (pp. 119–165). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Enhancement & Health.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2016, July 6). Early-Onset Alzheimer’s: Should You Worry? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Effects of the Trust Fund Taxes’ Lapsing on FAA’s Budget (RCED-96-130). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerina, J. (2012). The call of public service: Motivation and professional commitment in education [Doctoral dissertation]. Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, May 25). Forecast for Hurricanes Is Stormier Than Normal. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adrian, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Adrian, 2010; Clausen & Junge, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clausen & Junge, 2004)
  • Three authors: (Scholl et al., 2012)
  • 6 or more authors: (Korobkova et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Enhancement & Health
AbbreviationPerform. Enhanc. Health
ISSN (print)2211-2669
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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