How to format your references using the Performance Enhancement & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Enhancement & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregg, C. (2010). Eppendorf winner. Parental control over the brain. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6005), 770–771.
A journal article with 2 authors
Inoue, J., & Ohno, H. (2005). Physics. Taking the hall effect for a spin. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5743), 2004–2005.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cowen, R. K., Paris, C. B., & Srinivasan, A. (2006). Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5760), 522–527.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ormö, J., Sturkell, E., Alwmark, C., & Melosh, J. (2014). First known terrestrial impact of a binary asteroid from a main belt breakup event. Scientific Reports, 4, 6724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adamczyk, B. (2017). Foundations of Electromagnetic Compatibility. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Yeung, D. W. K. (2012). Subgame Consistent Economic Optimization: An Advanced Cooperative Dynamic Game Analysis (L. A. Petrosyan, Ed.; 1st Edition). Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Nielsen, S. P., Roos, P., Dahlgaard, H., Olsen, S. K., Jernström, J., & Eriksson, M. (2009). Thule Expedition 2003 - Studies on Radioactive Contamination and Particles. In D. H. Oughton & V. Kashparov (Eds.), Radioactive Particles in the Environment (pp. 93–109). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Enhancement & Health.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 12). Scientists Take First X-Ray Images Of Living Bacteria. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Telling America’s Story to the World--Problems and Issues (B-118654). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Obiedat, M. (2015). Incrementally Sorted Lattice Data Structures [Doctoral dissertation]. George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2011, September 29). On Final Day, Tears and Jeers. New York Times, B17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gregg, 2010; Inoue & Ohno, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Inoue & Ohno, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cowen et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ormö et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Enhancement & Health
AbbreviationPerform. Enhanc. Health
ISSN (print)2211-2669
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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