How to format your references using the Performance Enhancement & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Performance Enhancement & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Welcome competition. Nature, 432(7018), 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Palmer, L., & Lynch, G. (2010). Neuroscience. A Kantian view of space. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5985), 1487–1488.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nolan, D., James, I., & Mallal, S. (2005). HIV/AIDS. HIV: experiencing the pressures of modern life. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5714), 1422–1424.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yamaguchi, S., Isejima, H., Matsuo, T., Okura, R., Yagita, K., Kobayashi, M., & Okamura, H. (2003). Synchronization of cellular clocks in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5649), 1408–1412.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DeRosa, D. F. (2013). Foreign Exchange Operations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
de Franchis, R., & Dell’Era, A. (Eds.). (2014). Variceal Hemorrhage. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Rountev, A., Sharp, M., & Xu, G. (2008). IDE Dataflow Analysis in the Presence of Large Object-Oriented Libraries. In L. Hendren (Ed.), Compiler Construction: 17th International Conference, CC 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29 - April 6, 2008. Proceedings (pp. 53–68). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Performance Enhancement & Health.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, July 28). Dramatic Jump Of Global Temperature In 2016 Has Shocked Scientists. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1996). Central Artery/Tunnel Project: Cost and Financing (No. T-RCED-96-218). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oppenheim, J. N. (2017). Examination of Oncology Summer Camp Attendance, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Perceived Social Support Among Pediatric Cancer Patients and Siblings (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J. C., Jr. (2017, May 17). Actor Set to Have Key Role In Man’s Drug Murder Trial. New York Times, p. A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Palmer & Lynch, 2010; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Palmer & Lynch, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Nolan, James, & Mallal, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Yamaguchi et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titlePerformance Enhancement & Health
AbbreviationPerform. Enhanc. Health
ISSN (print)2211-2669
ScopePublic Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Health(social science)
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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