How to format your references using the Pediatric Physical Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pediatric Physical Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fryzuk MD. Chemistry. More can be better in N2 activation. Science. 2013;340:1530-1531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Von Hippel D, Hayes P. International security. Energy security for North Korea. Science. 2007;316:1288-1289.
A journal article with 3 authors
Koedinger KR, Booth JL, Klahr D. Education research. Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science. 2013;342:935-937.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bi H, Yin K, Xie X, et al. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2714.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sofronas A. Case Histories in Vibration Analysis and Metal Fatigue for the Practicing Engineer. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Wang X, Wang ZM, eds. High-Efficiency Solar Cells: Physics, Materials, and Devices. Vol 190. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
O’Leary A-M, Buchanan A. Grandfathers: The Parents’ Perspective in the United Kingdom. In: Buchanan A, Rotkirch A, eds. Grandfathers: Global Perspectives. Vol London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016:89-104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pediatric Physical Therapy.

Blog post
Davis J. Ecotourism Could Be Changing Animals’ Behavior For The Worse. IFLScience. October 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Customs Modernization. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green JL. The leadership practices of executive women of local government. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Middle East: Qatar: Death Sought For Russians. New York Times. June 9, 2004:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePediatric Physical Therapy
AbbreviationPediatr. Phys. Ther.
ISSN (print)0898-5669
ISSN (online)1538-005X
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles