How to format your references using the Pedagogy, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pedagogy, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parham, Peter. 2003. “Innate Immunity: The Unsung Heroes.” Nature 423 (6935): 20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phipps, Robert J., and Matthew J. Gaunt. 2009. “A Meta-Selective Copper-Catalyzed C-H Bond Arylation.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5921): 1593–1597.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, Taia T., Michael K. Parides, and Peter Palese. 2012. “Seroevidence for H5N1 Influenza Infections in Humans: Meta-Analysis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 335 (6075): 1463.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Clarke, G., R. A. Collins, B. R. Leavitt, D. F. Andrews, M. R. Hayden, C. J. Lumsden, and R. R. McInnes. 2000. “A One-Hit Model of Cell Death in Inherited Neuronal Degenerations.” Nature 406 (6792): 195–199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adamowicz, Zofia, and Paweł Zbierski. 1997. Logic of Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Levy, Michael J., and Suresh T. Chari, eds. 2013. Autoimmune (IgG4-Related) Pancreatitis and Cholangitis. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Seltrecht, Astrid. 2015. “Not Just for Women.” In Private World(s): Gender and Informal Learning of Adults, edited by Joanna Ostrouch-Kamińska and Cristina C. Vieira, 41–57. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pedagogy, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2017. “San Francisco Biohackers Are Wearing Implants Made For Diabetes In The Pursuit Of ‘Human Enhancement.’” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. School Meal Programs: Experiences of the States and Districts That Eliminated Reduced-Price Fees. GAO-09-584. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bentley, Kate J. 2016. “Modern Public Market to Revitalize a Small Community.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2017. “Don’t Blame These Heroes for Slumping Sales.” New York Times, April 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parham 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Parham 2003; Phipps and Gaunt 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phipps and Gaunt 2009)
  • Three authors: (Wang, Parides, and Palese 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Clarke et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePedagogy, Culture & Society
AbbreviationPedagog. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1468-1366
ISSN (online)1747-5104
Cultural Studies

Other styles