How to format your references using the Pedagogy, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pedagogy, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Johnson, Mark. 2002. “Spintronics: Spin Accumulation in Mesoscopic Systems.” Nature 416 (6883): 809–810; discussion 810.
A journal article with 2 authors
Azzalin, Claus M., and Joachim Lingner. 2004. “Cell Biology. Telomere Wedding Ends in Divorce.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5667): 60–62.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sun, Bing, Paul Munroe, and Guoxiu Wang. 2013. “Ruthenium Nanocrystals as Cathode Catalysts for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries with a Superior Performance.” Scientific Reports 3: 2247.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wolf, Max, G. Sander van Doorn, Olof Leimar, and Franz J. Weissing. 2007. “Life-History Trade-Offs Favour the Evolution of Animal Personalities.” Nature 447 (7144): 581–584.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mazze, Roger S., Ellie S. Strock, Richard M. Bergenstal, Amy Criego, Robert Cuddihy, Oded Langer, Gregg D. Simonson, and Margaret A. Powers. 2011. Staged Diabetes Management. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Braedel-Kühner, Cordula. 2016. Re-Thinking Diversity: Multiple Approaches in Theory, Media, Communities, and Managerial Practice. Edited by Andreas Müller. 1st ed. 2016. Management – Culture – Interpretation. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
A chapter in an edited book
Deliagina, Tatiana G. 2008. “Stabilization of Posture.” In Dynamical Systems, Wave-Based Computation and Neuro-Inspired Robots, edited by Paolo Arena, 41–53. CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pedagogy, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Nearby Exoplanet’s Hellish Atmosphere Measured.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Avoiding Major Disruptions Will Require Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships. T-AIMD-98-267. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sweeney, Diane L. 2009. “Learning in Human -Dolphin Interactions at Zoological Facilities.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Kevin. 1999. “Children’s Books.” New York Times, September 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Johnson 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Johnson 2002; Azzalin and Lingner 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Azzalin and Lingner 2004)
  • Three authors: (Sun, Munroe, and Wang 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wolf et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titlePedagogy, Culture & Society
AbbreviationPedagog. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1468-1366
ISSN (online)1747-5104
Cultural Studies

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