How to format your references using the Pedagogy, Culture & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pedagogy, Culture & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cepko, Constance. 2010. “Neuroscience. Seeing the Light of Day.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 329 (5990): 403–404.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lysenko, Vladimir, and Tatyana Varduny. 2013. “Anthocyanin-Dependent Anoxygenic Photosynthesis in Coloured Flower Petals?” Scientific Reports 3 (November): 3373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kinoshita, Toshiya, Trevor Wenger, and David S. Weiss. 2006. “A Quantum Newton’s Cradle.” Nature 440 (7086): 900–903.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lawrence, Andrew, Luke Clark, Jamie Nicole Labuzetta, Barbara Sahakian, and Shai Vyakarnum. 2008. “The Innovative Brain.” Nature 456 (7219): 168–169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brown, Constance. 2010. Fibonacci Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Audebaud, Philippe, and Christine Paulin-Mohring, eds. 2008. Mathematics of Program Construction: 9th International Conference, MPC 2008, Marseille, France, July 15-18, 2008. Proceedings. Vol. 5133. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dudler, Agnes, and Kersti Weiß. 2012. “Interlocking Gear Wheels – from Training to Practice in Various Professional Fields.” In Supervision in Psychodrama: Experiential Learning in Psychotherapy and Training, edited by Hannes Krall, Jutta Fürst, and Pierre Fontaine, 57–72. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pedagogy, Culture & Society.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Coffee Won’t Give You Cancer, Unless It’s Very Very Hot, Then It Might.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2007. Property Management: Lack of Accountability and Weak Internal Controls Leave NASA Equipment Vulnerable to Loss, Theft, and Misuse. GAO-07-432. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gardina, Vincent J. 2008. “Analysis of LiDAR Data for Fluvial Geomorphic Change Detection at a Small Maryland Stream.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “Refreshing Series Provides Hope.” New York Times, October 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cepko 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cepko 2010; Lysenko and Varduny 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lysenko and Varduny 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kinoshita, Wenger, and Weiss 2006)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lawrence et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePedagogy, Culture & Society
AbbreviationPedagog. Cult. Soc.
ISSN (print)1468-1366
ISSN (online)1747-5104
Cultural Studies

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