How to format your references using the Pedagogies: An International Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pedagogies: An International Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yakir, D. (2002). Global enzymes: sphere of influence. Nature, 416(6883), 795.
A journal article with 2 authors
Heckman, T. M., & Kauffmann, G. (2011). The coevolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes: a local perspective. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6039), 182–185.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alves, J. F., Lada, C. J., & Lada, E. A. (2001). Internal structure of a cold dark molecular cloud inferred from the extinction of background starlight. Nature, 409(6817), 159–161.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Katz, H. E., Lovinger, A. J., Johnson, J., Kloc, C., Siegrist, T., Li, W., Lin, Y. Y., & Dodabalapur, A. (2000). A soluble and air-stable organic semiconductor with high electron mobility. Nature, 404(6777), 478–481.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dacey, J. S., Mack, M. D., & Fiore, L. B. (2016). Your Anxious Child. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ting, I.-H., & Wu, H.-J. (Eds.). (2009). Web Mining Applications in E-commerce and E-services (Vol. 172). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramesh, R., Jayakumar, V. K., Selvakumar, J. M., Doss Prakash, V., Ramadass, G. A., & Atmanand, M. A. (2010). Distributed Real Time Control Systems for Deep Water ROV (ROSUB 6000). In P. Vadakkepat, J.-H. Kim, N. Jesse, A. A. Mamun, T. K. Kiong, J. Baltes, J. Anderson, I. Verner, & D. Ahlgren (Eds.), Trends in Intelligent Robotics: 13th FIRA Robot World Congress, FIRA 2010, Bangalore, India, September 15-17, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 33–40). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pedagogies: An International Journal.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, December 15). This Is What The Internet Looked Like In 1973. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1975). Technology Transfer and Innovation Can Help Cities Identify Problems and Solutions (PSAD-75-110). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Foster, H. C. (2017). The effect of droplet size and sprayer type on physical drift [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 6). Baseball; Rainout Gives Injured Mets More Rest. New York Times, B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Yakir, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Heckman & Kauffmann, 2011; Yakir, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Heckman & Kauffmann, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Alves et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Katz et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePedagogies: An International Journal
ISSN (print)1554-480X
ISSN (online)1554-4818

Other styles