How to format your references using the Pathology & Oncology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology & Oncology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riley S (2007) Large-scale spatial-transmission models of infectious disease. Science 316:1298–1301
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields S, Johnston M (2002) Genomics. A crisis in postgenomic nomenclature. Science 296:671–672
A journal article with 3 authors
Alvarado D, Klein DE, Lemmon MA (2009) ErbB2 resembles an autoinhibited invertebrate epidermal growth factor receptor. Nature 461:287–291
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Li Q, Duan L, Estes JD, et al (2005) Peak SIV replication in resting memory CD4+ T cells depletes gut lamina propria CD4+ T cells. Nature 434:1148–1152

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chance DM (2008) Essays in Derivatives. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Davies J (2007) The Definitive Guide to SOA: BEA AquaLogic® Service Bus. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Boukebbab S, Boulahlib MS (2015) The Spatial Interactions Using the Gravity Model: Application at the Evaluation of Transport Efficiency at Constantine City, Algeria. In: Zamojski W, Mazurkiewicz J, Sugier J, et al (eds) Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 35–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology & Oncology Research.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) How Do Animals See In The Dark? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Information Technology: Customs Has Made Progress on Automated Commercial Environment System, but It Faces Long-Standing Management Challenges and New Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Anemaet WK (2008) The effects of non -surgical interventions on osteoarthritis-like changes in the mouse knee. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Scoreboard Shows Insult After Injury on Mound. New York Times D4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology & Oncology Research
AbbreviationPathol. Oncol. Res.
ISSN (print)1219-4956
ISSN (online)1532-2807
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles