How to format your references using the Pathology & Oncology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology & Oncology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger K (2004) Short-term limbo. Nature 427:760–761
A journal article with 2 authors
Devoret MH, Schoelkopf RJ (2013) Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook. Science 339:1169–1174
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine MS, Voss D, Coontz R (2007) A robotic future. Introduction to special issue. Science 318:1083
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Alvarez-Vasquez F, Sims KJ, Cowart LA, et al (2005) Simulation and validation of modelled sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature 433:425–430

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Steenbarger BN (2015) Trading Psychology 2.0. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Batyrshin I, Mendoza MG (2013) Advances in Computational Intelligence: 11th Mexican International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, MICAI 2012, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, October 27 – November 4, 2012. Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Sachithanadam M, Joshi SC (2016) Microstructural Analysis. In: Joshi SC (ed) Silica Aerogel Composites: Novel Fabrication Methods. Springer, Singapore, pp 37–50

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology & Oncology Research.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Unusual Artwork Showing Mongoose On A Leash Revealed In Ancient Egyptian Tomb. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1980) Status of Special National Direct Student Loan Funds. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brothers J (2009) Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L (2006) Amid Concerns, Counties Move to Limit Taxes. New York Times 14LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology & Oncology Research
AbbreviationPathol. Oncol. Res.
ISSN (print)1219-4956
ISSN (online)1532-2807
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles