How to format your references using the Pathology & Oncology Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pathology & Oncology Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sarewitz D (2015) CRISPR: Science can’t solve it. Nature 522:413–414
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw AS, Huang Y (2010) Immunology. CAR’ing for the skin. Science 329:1154–1155
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarano F, Guimarães A, da Silva JM (2012) Rio+20: Lead by example. Nature 486:25–26
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gaidos E, Haghighipour N, Agol E, et al (2007) New worlds on the horizon: Earth-sized planets close to other stars. Science 318:210–213

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lamattina JL (2012) Devalued and Distrusted. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Martens B, Brown A (2005) Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005: Proceedings of the 11th International CAAD Futures Conference held at the Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, on June 20–22, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Gomes LT, de Barros LC, Bede B (2015) Fuzzy Differential Equations. In: Barros LC de, Bede B (eds) Fuzzy Differential Equations in Various Approaches. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 69–113

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pathology & Oncology Research.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) What To Do When You’re Dead: Science Edition. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Electronic Disability Claims Processing: SSA Needs to Address Risks Associated with Its Accelerated Systems Development Strategy. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ademiluyi CA (2010) Felony disenfranchisement and how it contributes to the Black electorate. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) Patching Together a Lineup, the Mets Come Apart Against the Nationals. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePathology & Oncology Research
AbbreviationPathol. Oncol. Res.
ISSN (print)1219-4956
ISSN (online)1532-2807
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles