How to format your references using the Parasites & Vectors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasites & Vectors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Clark MK. Continental collision slowing due to viscous mantle lithosphere rather than topography. Nature. 2012;483:74–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wang Y, Dohlman HG. Pheromone signaling mechanisms in yeast: a prototypical sex machine. Science. 2004;306:1508–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schmauss C, Lee-McDermott Z, Medina LR. Trans-generational effects of early life stress: the role of maternal behavior. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4873.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Russell CT, Zhang TL, Delva M, Magnes W, Strangeway RJ, Wei HY. Lightning on Venus inferred from whistler-mode waves in the ionosphere. Nature. 2007;450:661–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Avdeef A. Absorption and Drug Development. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Alperson-Afil N. The Acheulian Site of Gesher Benot Ya’aqov Volume II: Ancient Flames and Controlled Use of Fire. Goren-Inbar N, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chapin JK. Hardware Implementation. In: Chapin JK, Gerhardt GA, McFarland DJ, Principe JC, Soussou WV, Taylor DM, et al., editors. Brain-Computer Interfaces: An International Assessment of Research and Development Trends. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 65–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasites & Vectors.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Laboratory-Grown Penises Ready To Be Tested In Humans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. OPM Retirement Modernization: Longstanding Information Technology Management Weaknesses Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Nov. Report No.: GAO-12-226T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Obakhume DA. An aftercare program for female survivors of domestic abuse: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times. 2006 Jun 4;14NJ6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasites & Vectors
AbbreviationParasit. Vectors
ISSN (online)1756-3305
Infectious Diseases

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