How to format your references using the Parasites & Vectors citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Parasites & Vectors. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Goodman MB. Eppendorf essay winner. Deconstructing C. elegans sensory mechanotransduction. Science. 2004;306:427–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Paul WE, Mage RG. Elvin A. Kabat (1914-2000). Nature. 2000;407:316.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Meier DL, Koide S, Uchida Y. Magnetohydrodynamic production of relativistic jets. Science. 2001;291:84–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Shi Y, Huang J-K, Jin L, Hsu Y-T, Yu SF, Li L-J, et al. Selective decoration of Au nanoparticles on monolayer MoS2 single crystals. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1839.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. de Klerk A. Fischer-Tropsch Refining. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2011.
An edited book
1. Fensel D. Semantic Web Services. Facca FM, Simperl E, Toma I, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ruiz GM, Lorda J, Arnwine A, Lion K. Chapter II Shipping Patterns Associated with the Panama Canal: Effects on Biotic Exchange? In: Gollasch S, Galil BS, Cohen AN, editors. Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 113–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Parasites & Vectors.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Explainer: What Philae Did In Its 60 hours on Comet 67P [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Feb. Report No.: HEHS-97-31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Ziegler RT. The Impact of Strategic Planning Involvement on Employee Engagement in a Federal Public Health Agency [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Back on the Mound, Harvey Has Issues With Command. New York Times. 2017 May 13;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleParasites & Vectors
AbbreviationParasit. Vectors
ISSN (online)1756-3305
Infectious Diseases

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