How to format your references using the Paläontologische Zeitschrift citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paläontologische Zeitschrift. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe, Duncan. 2011. Biodiversity: Endangered and in demand. Nature 480: S101-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santolík, Ondrej, and Jaroslav Chum. 2009. Planetary science. The origin of plasmaspheric hiss. Science (New York, N.Y.) 324: 729–730.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knill, E., R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn. 2001. A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics. Nature 409: 46–52.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Haddock, Steven H. D., Casey W. Dunn, Philip R. Pugh, and Christine E. Schnitzler. 2005. Bioluminescent and red-fluorescent lures in a deep-sea siphonophore. Science (New York, N.Y.) 309: 263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pardoe, Iain. 2006. Applied Regression Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Liu, Jiming, Jinglong Wu, Yiyu Yao, and Toyoaki Nishida, ed. 2009. Active Media Technology: 5th International Conference, AMT 2009, Beijing, China, October 22-24, 2009. Proceedings. Vol. 5820. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Schrenk, Peter, Elizabeth J. Hall-Findlay, Florian Fitzal, Andrea Grisotti, Donato Casella, Claudio Calabrese, Christoph Rageth, Norbert K. Schöndorf, Richard M. Rainsbury, and Georg M. Huemer. 2010. OPS and Breast Conserving Surgery (BSC). In Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Guide to Clinical Practice, ed. Florian Fitzal and Peter Schrenk, 45–132. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. This 3D Printer Uses Glass For Ink. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 21.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Student Attrition at the Five Federal Service Academies. Enclosure B: FPCD-76-12B. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bontrager, Jordan G. 2015. Characterization and Applications for A Polymerized DiaCEST Contrast Agent. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barnes, Brooks, and Julie Creswell. 2017. Reeling From Scandal, Weinstein’s Studio Gets Financial Lifeline From Equity Firm. New York Times, October 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graham-Rowe 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Santolík and Chum 2009; Graham-Rowe 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santolík and Chum 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Haddock et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaläontologische Zeitschrift
AbbreviationPalaontol. Z.
ISSN (print)0031-0220
ISSN (online)1867-6812

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