How to format your references using the Paläontologische Zeitschrift citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paläontologische Zeitschrift. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mervis, J. 2000. NSF IN FLUX: NSF Searches for Right Way to Help Women. Science (New York, N.Y.) 289: 379–381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scotland, Robert W., and Michael J. Sanderson. 2004. The significance of few versus many in the tree of life. Science (New York, N.Y.) 303: 643.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gagnon, Katie, C. David Chadwell, and Edmundo Norabuena. 2005. Measuring the onset of locking in the Peru-Chile trench with GPS and acoustic measurements. Nature 434: 205–208.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gorb, Stanislav N., Senta Niederegger, Cheryl Y. Hayashi, Adam P. Summers, Walter Vötsch, and Paul Walther. 2006. Biomaterials: silk-like secretion from tarantula feet. Nature 443: 407.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, Richard B. 2011. 20% Chance of Rain. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Monkhouse, Andrew. 2006. SCJD Exam with J2SE 5. Edited by Terry Camerlengo. Second Edition. Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Lund-Durlacher, Dagmar. 2015. Corporate Social Responsibility and Tourism. In Education for Sustainability in Tourism: A Handbook of Processes, Resources, and Strategies, ed. Gianna Moscardo and Pierre Benckendorff, 59–73. CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Researchers Develop Solar Cells From Old Car Batteries. IFLScience. IFLScience. August 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1985. Implementation of Public Law 94-142 as It Relates to Handicapped Delinquents in the District of Columbia. GGD-86-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lindsey, Melanie M. 2010. Sampling frequency for semi-arid streams and rivers: Implications for national parks in the Sonoran Desert Network. Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2010. The Engineered Shoe. New York Times, May 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mervis 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Mervis 2000; Scotland and Sanderson 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Scotland and Sanderson 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Gorb et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaläontologische Zeitschrift
AbbreviationPalaontol. Z.
ISSN (print)0031-0220
ISSN (online)1867-6812

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