How to format your references using the Paläontologische Zeitschrift citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paläontologische Zeitschrift. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zimmerman, Eric. 2004. Recruiters and academia. Nature 431: 1022.
A journal article with 2 authors
Holland, Matthew D., and Alan Hastings. 2008. Strong effect of dispersal network structure on ecological dynamics. Nature 456: 792–794.
A journal article with 3 authors
Castelnovo, C., R. Moessner, and S. L. Sondhi. 2008. Magnetic monopoles in spin ice. Nature 451: 42–45.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Guo, Chun Xian, Jiale Xie, Bin Wang, Xinting Zheng, Hong Bin Yang, and Chang Ming Li. 2013. A new class of fluorescent-dots: long luminescent lifetime bio-dots self-assembled from DNA at low temperatures. Scientific reports 3: 2957.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dos Santos, Euzeli Cipriano, Jr, and Edison Roberto Cabral da Silva. 2014. ADVANCED POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Sahai, Akhil. 2005. Web Services in the Enterprise: Concepts, Standards, Solutions, and Management. Edited by Sven Graupner. Network and Systems Management. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Thompson, Henry J., Weiqin Jiang, and Zongjian Zhu. 2011. Energetics and Cancer: Exploring a Road Less Traveled. In Physical Activity, Dietary Calorie Restriction, and Cancer, ed. Anne McTiernan, 55–67. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2017. This Is What Caused The Most Powerful Eruption In Human History. IFLScience. IFLScience. January 31.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2004. Information Technology: Training Can Be Enhanced by Greater Use of Leading Practices. GAO-04-791. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schmisseur, Brooke E. 2002. An Evaluation of Noise Reduction Effectiveness in Four Digital Hearing Aids. Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2004. World Briefing | Asia: China And Russia Plan First Joint Military Exercise. New York Times, December 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zimmerman 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Zimmerman 2004; Holland and Hastings 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Holland and Hastings 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Guo et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaläontologische Zeitschrift
AbbreviationPalaontol. Z.
ISSN (print)0031-0220
ISSN (online)1867-6812

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