How to format your references using the Paläontologische Zeitschrift citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paläontologische Zeitschrift. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brock, Dan W. 2002. Human cloning and our sense of self. Science (New York, N.Y.) 296: 314–316.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomasello, Michael, and Josep Call. 2011. Methodological challenges in the study of primate cognition. Science (New York, N.Y.) 334: 1227–1228.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pornillos, Owen, Barbie K. Ganser-Pornillos, and Mark Yeager. 2011. Atomic-level modelling of the HIV capsid. Nature 469: 424–427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Rauh, Nadine R., Andreas Schmidt, Jenny Bormann, Erich A. Nigg, and Thomas U. Mayer. 2005. Calcium triggers exit from meiosis II by targeting the APC/C inhibitor XErp1 for degradation. Nature 437: 1048–1052.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb, Robert W. 2011. Sovereign Debt. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ilaslan, Hakan. 2016. Pediatric and Adult MRI Atlas of Bone Marrow: Normal Appearances, Variants and Diffuse Disease States. Edited by Murali Sundaram. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Dozmorov, Mikhail, and Robert E. Hurst. 2010. From Microarray to Biology. In Systems Biology for Signaling Networks, ed. Sangdun Choi, 85–107. Systems Biology. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paläontologische Zeitschrift.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. Keychain First Aid Kit Might Help Save The Bees. IFLScience. IFLScience. September 18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Education Needs to Further Examine Data Collection on English Language Learners in Charter Schools. GAO-13-655R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Flynn, Mary Josephine. 2013. Lifeguard employability skills. Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2008. Working to Restore Help for AIDS Patients. New York Times, May 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brock 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Brock 2002; Tomasello and Call 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomasello and Call 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Rauh et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaläontologische Zeitschrift
AbbreviationPalaontol. Z.
ISSN (print)0031-0220
ISSN (online)1867-6812

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