How to format your references using the PAIN citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PAIN. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chisholm SW. Stirring times in the Southern Ocean. Nature 2000;407:685–687.
A journal article with 2 authors
Eom Y-H, Jo H-H. Generalized friendship paradox in complex networks: the case of scientific collaboration. Sci Rep 2014;4:4603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thomas JA, Simcox DJ, Clarke RT. Successful conservation of a threatened Maculinea butterfly. Science 2009;325:80–83.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ding Y, Zhang Y, Peng T, Lu Y, Jin D, Ren Q, Liu Y, Han J, Xi P. Observation of mesenteric microcirculatory disturbance in rat by laser oblique scanning optical microscopy. Sci Rep 2013;3:1762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Michael E, Gillian H, Stefan K, Alex L. Gramsci. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2012.
An edited book
Johnson CFA. Pro Bash Programming: Scripting the GNU/Linux Shell. Second Edition. Varma J, editor Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Sayaf R, Clarke D, Harper R. $$\mathrm{CPS}^2$$ : A Contextual Privacy Framework for Social Software. In: Tian J, Jing J, Srivatsa M, editors. International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks: 10th International ICST Conference, SecureComm 2014, Beijing, China, September 24-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015. pp. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PAIN.

Blog post
Andrew E. Oddball Animal Friendships. IFLScience 2013. Available: Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Auto Safety: NHTSA Has Options to Improve the Safety Defect Recall Process. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ly L. Performance Appraisal in a Family Business [Doctoral dissertation]. Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. For the Stressed Business Owner, a Range of Pursuits to Revive the Spirit. New York Times 2009:B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2,4].
This sentence cites four references [2,5,7,8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePAIN
ISSN (print)0304-3959
ISSN (online)1872-6623
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles