How to format your references using the PAIN citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for PAIN. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Subbaraman N. Public health: A burning issue. Nature 2014;513:S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silver PG, Behn MD. Intermittent plate tectonics? Science 2008;319:85–88.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier M, Crawford JD, Tweed DB. Optimal transsaccadic integration explains distorted spatial perception. Nature 2003;422:76–80.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Nakatsuji S, Nambu Y, Tonomura H, Sakai O, Jonas S, Broholm C, Tsunetsugu H, Qiu Y, Maeno Y. Spin disorder on a triangular lattice. Science 2005;309:1697–1700.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saint-Dizier P. Musical Rhetoric. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014 p.
An edited book
Wood D ed. Linking Government Data. New York, NY: Springer, 2011 p.
A chapter in an edited book
Vitiello MS. Terahertz Photonic Devices. In: Corsi C, Sizov F, editors. THz and Security Applications: Detectors, Sources and Associated Electronics for THz Applications. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014. pp. 91–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for PAIN.

Blog post
Taub B. Adult Ants Take Out Hits On Young Males, Causing Death Squads To Rip Them To Shreds. IFLScience 2016. Available: Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Safeguarding Taxpayer Information: An Evaluation of the Proposed Computerized Tax Administration System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977 p.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ressler KM. The path to leadership for Native American women at North Dakota tribal colleges [Doctoral dissertation]. Minneapolis, MN: Capella University. (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Politically Charged Graffiti Treats Spears as a Symptom, Not a Star. New York Times 2001:148.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [3,4].
This sentence cites four references [5–8].

About the journal

Full journal titlePAIN
ISSN (print)0304-3959
ISSN (online)1872-6623
ScopeAnesthesiology and Pain Medicine
Clinical Neurology

Other styles