How to format your references using the Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Guthrie, R.D., 2003. Rapid body size decline in Alaskan Pleistocene horses before extinction. Nature 426, 169–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hollien, J., Weissman, J.S., 2006. Decay of endoplasmic reticulum-localized mRNAs during the unfolded protein response. Science 313, 104–107.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rubie, D.C., Gessmann, C.K., Frost, D.J., 2004. Partitioning of oxygen during core formation on the Earth and Mars. Nature 429, 58–61.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Olsen, B., Munster, V.J., Wallensten, A., Waldenström, J., Osterhaus, A.D.M.E., Fouchier, R.A.M., 2006. Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science 312, 384–388.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Snape, S., 2011. Ancient Egyptian Tombs. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Lyden, P.D. (Ed.), 2015. Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Stroke, 3rd ed. 2015. ed. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Rai, J., Ramkumar, M., Sugantha, T., 2013. Calcareous Nannofossils from the Ottakoil Formation, Cauvery Basin, South India: Implications on Age and Late Cretaceous Environmental Conditions, in: Ramkumar, M. (Ed.), On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 109–122.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Large Hadron Collider Could Detect Extra Dimensions [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. NASA: Major Management Challenges (No. T-NSIAD-97-178). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Connelly, J., 2010. A tradition of excellence transitions to the 21 st century: Hungarian mathematics education, 1988-2008 (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rashbaum, W.K., McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2014. 106 Are Charged in Lengthy Fraud Over Disabilities. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Guthrie, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Guthrie, 2003; Hollien and Weissman, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hollien and Weissman, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Olsen et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titlePacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN (print)2405-8831

Other styles