How to format your references using the Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catling, D.C., 2006. Comment on “A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere.” Science 311, 38; author reply 38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Druzd, D., Scheiermann, C., 2013. Immunology. Some monocytes got rhythm. Science 341, 1462–1464.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ishikawa, H., Ma, Z., Barber, G.N., 2009. STING regulates intracellular DNA-mediated, type I interferon-dependent innate immunity. Nature 461, 788–792.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chu, L., Li, L., Su, J., Tu, F., Liu, N., Gao, Y., 2014. A general method for preparing anatase TiO₂ treelike-nanoarrays on various metal wires for fiber dye-sensitized solar cells. Sci. Rep. 4, 4420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, C.L., 2010. Advanced Process Control. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Huang, D.-S., Jo, K.-H., Hussain, A. (Eds.), 2015. Intelligent Computing Theories and Methodologies: 11th International Conference, ICIC 2015, Fuzhou, China, August 20-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
De Boever, J., De Grooff, D., 2010. Examining the Use of Peer-to-Peer Networks from an Activity Perspective, in: Shen, X., Yu, H., Buford, J., Akon, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Peer-to-Peer Networking. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 91–114.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Body Hair Helps Animals Stay Clean – And Could Inspire Self-Cleaning Technologies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1979. What Assurance Does Office of Education’s Eligibility Process Provide? (No. HRD-78-120). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spillman, S.A., 2014. Is More Always Better: Comparing the Effects of Single and Multiple Learning Channels on Academic Performance (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Branch, J., 2017. Thinking About the Future in a Place Where Lives Ended. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catling, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Catling, 2006; Druzd and Scheiermann, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Druzd and Scheiermann, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Chu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN (print)2405-8831

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