How to format your references using the Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Spitale, J.N., 2002. Asteroid hazard mitigation using the Yarkovsky effect. Science 296, 77.
A journal article with 2 authors
Turner, S.L., Ray, A., 2009. Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants. Nature 461, 277–281.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rogers, J.A., Lagally, M.G., Nuzzo, R.G., 2011. Synthesis, assembly and applications of semiconductor nanomembranes. Nature 477, 45–53.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ahn, B.Y., Duoss, E.B., Motala, M.J., Guo, X., Park, S.-I., Xiong, Y., Yoon, J., Nuzzo, R.G., Rogers, J.A., Lewis, J.A., 2009. Omnidirectional printing of flexible, stretchable, and spanning silver microelectrodes. Science 323, 1590–1593.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rigo, M., 2014. Formal Languages, Automata and Numeration Systems 1. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Walz, W. (Ed.), 2005. Integrative Physiology in the Proteomics and Post-Genomics Age. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Hashemi, S.H., Domairry, D., 2014. Introduction of Considerable Oscillatory Systems, in: Ganji, D.D. (Ed.), Dynamics and Vibrations: Progress in Nonlinear Analysis, Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 185–247.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Newly discovered gassy exoplanet has Earth-like mass [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2010. Perchlorate: Occurrence Is Widespread but at Varying Levels; Federal Agencies Have Taken Some Actions to Respond to and Lessen Releases (No. GAO-10-769). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, A.D., 2016. Strategic school solutions: A capacity building framework for leaders accelerating 21st century teaching and learning (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J., 2016. Before Taking Shows to Audiences, Networks Try to Win Over Critics. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Spitale, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Spitale, 2002; Turner and Ray, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Turner and Ray, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Ahn et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePacific Science Review B: Humanities and Social Sciences
ISSN (print)2405-8831

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