How to format your references using the Oxford German Studies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Oxford German Studies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clyne, Rosemary, ‘Industry and Interns. The Intern Experience’, Nature, 431.7008 (2004), 612
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson, John D., and Gerald Schubert, ‘Saturn’s Gravitational Field, Internal Rotation, and Interior Structure’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 317.5843 (2007), 1384–87
A journal article with 3 authors
Lissauer, Jack J., Rebekah I. Dawson, and Scott Tremaine, ‘Advances in Exoplanet Science from Kepler’, Nature, 513.7518 (2014), 336–44
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang, Núria Aliaga-Alcalde, David N. Hendrickson, and George Christou, ‘Exchange-Biased Quantum Tunnelling in a Supramolecular Dimer of Single-Molecule Magnets’, Nature, 416.6879 (2002), 406–9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Vaseghi, Saeed V., Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006)
An edited book
Gunopulos, Dimitrios, Thomas Hofmann, Donato Malerba, and Michalis Vazirgiannis, eds., Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases: European Conference, ECML PKDD 2011, Athens, Greece, September 5-9, 2011. Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011),
A chapter in an edited book
Bosman, Peter A. N., and Dirk Thierens, ‘Numerical Optimization with Real-Valued Estimation-of-Distribution Algorithms’, in Scalable Optimization via Probabilistic Modeling, ed. by Martin Pelikan, Kumara Sastry, and Erick CantúPaz, Studies in Computational Intelligence (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006), pp. 91–120

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Oxford German Studies.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen, ‘First Baby Born From Womb Transplant’, IFLScience (IFLScience, 2014)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: Challenges in Using Biometric Technologies (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 19 May 2004)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsobrook, Joseph A., ‘Music Education in America: A Content Analysis and National Perspective of Standards-Based Outcomes for K–8 General Music’ (unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, 2013)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, John, and Mitch Smith, ‘Police Shooting Rattles Somalis in Minneapolis’, New York Times, 20 July 2017, p. A19

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleOxford German Studies
AbbreviationOxf. Ger. Stud.
ISSN (print)0078-7191
ISSN (online)1745-9214
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Literature and Literary Theory
Linguistics and Language

Other styles