How to format your references using the Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jungwirth P. A chemist realizes that popularity is no measure of strength. Nature 2009;460:555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vazquez JA, Reid MR. Probing the accumulation history of the voluminous Toba magma. Science 2004;305:991–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts RB, Ser JR, Kocher TD. Sexual conflict resolved by invasion of a novel sex determiner in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes. Science 2009;326:998–1001.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
van den Berg B, Black PN, Clemons WM Jr, Rapoport TA. Crystal structure of the long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL. Science 2004;304:1506–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nagasawa M. Physical Chemistry of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Advances in Chemical Physics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Kim H-J. Clinical Anatomy of the Face for Filler and Botulinum Toxin Injection. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Edelglass W. Levinas’s Language. In: Tymieniecka A-T, editor. The Enigma of Good and Evil; The Moral Sentiment in Literature, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005, p. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research.

Blog post
Hale T. Scientists Explain Exactly What’s Happening To Your Brain And Body Right Before You Die. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: OMB Leadership Critical to Making Needed Enterprise Architecture and E-government Progress. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shurts C. Superstructure. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Into the Fray of Great TV. New York Times 2017:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research
AbbreviationOrthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)1877-0568
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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