How to format your references using the Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Szyszka P. Ecology. Follow the odor. Science 2014;344:1454.
A journal article with 2 authors
Punnoose A, Finkel’stein AM. Metal-insulator transition in disordered two-dimensional electron systems. Science 2005;310:289–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
Labeit A, Peinemann F, Kedir A. Cervical cancer screening service utilisation in UK. Sci Rep 2013;3:2362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Doyle PS, Bibette J, Bancaud A, Viovy J-L. Self-assembled magnetic matrices for DNA separation chips. Science 2002;295:2237.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pilot MJ. Driving Sustainability to Business Success. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Ercan A. Long-Range Dependence and Sea Level Forecasting. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Awange JL, Paláncz B. Groebner Basis. In: Paláncz B, editor. Geospatial Algebraic Computations: Theory and Applications, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 37–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research.

Blog post
Luntz S. Textbooks Have Been Getting Fern Sex Wrong, Paper Claims. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Modernization: IRS’ Progress on the Electronic Filing System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hofmann TB. Adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia: A comparison of quality of life issues for those receiving Botox treatment. Doctoral dissertation. Northcentral University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Bolshoi Decides It’s Over Before “Fat” Lady Dances. New York Times 2003:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research
AbbreviationOrthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)1877-0568
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles