How to format your references using the Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Logothetis NK. Bold claims for optogenetics. Nature 2010;468:E3-4; discussion E4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barkana R, Loeb A. Spectral signature of cosmological infall of gas around the first quasars. Nature 2003;421:341–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kovács ÁM, Téglás E, Endress AD. The social sense: susceptibility to others’ beliefs in human infants and adults. Science 2010;330:1830–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Etienne RS, Latimer AM, Silander JA Jr, Cowling RM. Comment on “Neutral ecological theory reveals isolation and rapid speciation in a biodiversity hot spot.” Science 2006;311:610.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bitam S, Mellouk A. Bio-Inspired Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Bhattacharyya S, Dutta P, De S, Klepac G, editors. Hybrid Soft Computing for Image Segmentation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Oren N. Argument Schemes for Normative Practical Reasoning. In: Black E, Modgil S, Oren N, editors. Theory and Applications of Formal Argumentation: Second International Workshop, TAFA 2013, Beijing, China, August 3-5, 2013, Revised Selected papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Three Trillion Trees Live On Earth, But There Would Be Twice As Many Without Humans. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Many Broadcasters Will Not Meet May 2002 Digital Television Deadline. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ackerina J. The call of public service: Motivation and professional commitment in education. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. Volcker Sees Hidden Peril in State Budget Practices. New York Times 2015:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOrthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery & Research
AbbreviationOrthop. Traumatol. Surg. Res.
ISSN (print)1877-0568
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles