How to format your references using the ORL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ORL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Römling U. Microbiology: bacterial communities as capitalist economies. Nature. 2013 May;497(7449):321–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Pyenson ND, Pyenson L. Treating medieval manuscripts as fossils. Science. 2005 Jul;309(5735):698–701; author reply 698-701.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Satoh N, Nakashima T, Yamamoto K. Metastability of anatase: size dependent and irreversible anatase-rutile phase transition in atomic-level precise titania. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1959.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Oinuma I, Ishikawa Y, Katoh H, Negishi M. The Semaphorin 4D receptor Plexin-B1 is a GTPase activating protein for R-Ras. Science. 2004 Aug;305(5685):862–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Smith MC, Sherman DM. Goat Medicine. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
1
Kreuer K-D, editor. Fuel Cells: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Klees SJ. World Bank and Education. In: Klees SJ, Samoff J, Stromquist NP, editors. The World Bank and Education: Critiques and Alternatives. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012; pp 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ORL.

Blog post
1
Davis J. One-Off Legal Sale Of Ivory Stockpiles Led To A Dramatic Increase In Elephant Poaching [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Jun [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/oneoff-legal-sale-of-ivory-stockpiles-led-to-a-dramatic-increase-in-elephant-poaching/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. NASA’s Requirement for a Single Solid Rocket Refurbishment and Assembly Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Young DL. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers’ expertise development. 2012

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Burghardt LF. The Legacies They Left. New York Times. 2006 Jan;14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleORL
AbbreviationORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
ISSN (print)0301-1569
ISSN (online)1423-0275
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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