How to format your references using the ORL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ORL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Egger J: Refinement-cut: user-guided segmentation algorithm for translational science. Sci Rep 2014;4:5164.
A journal article with 2 authors
Canadell JG, Raupach MR: Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science 2008;320:1456–1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
Teufel R, Friedrich T, Fuchs G: An oxygenase that forms and deoxygenates toxic epoxide. Nature 2012;483:359–362.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hill MT, Dorren HJS, De Vries T, Leijtens XJM, Den Besten JH, Smalbrugge B, et al.: A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers. Nature 2004;432:206–209.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rooney T: IP Address Management. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Guthoff R, Katowitz J (eds): Oculoplastics and Orbit. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Grinevetsky SR, Zonn IS, Zhiltsov SS, Kosarev AN, Kostianoy AG: C; in Zonn IS, Zhiltsov SS, Kosarev AN, Kostianoy AG (eds): The Black Sea Encyclopedia. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2015, pp 169–215.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ORL.

Blog post
Luntz S: Meet The Newly Discovered Worm Snail That Thinks It’s Spiderman. IFLScience 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Weather Satellite Costs Have Increased: Problems Have Occurred in Their Manufacturing Quality Control. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox DC: A measurement of the neutral current neutrino-nucleon elastic cross section at MiniBooNE 2008;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B: Hong Kong Trilogy: Preschooled Preoccupied Preposterous. New York Times 2017;C10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleORL
AbbreviationORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
ISSN (print)0301-1569
ISSN (online)1423-0275

Other styles