How to format your references using the ORL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ORL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Shubin N. Farish A. Jenkins Jr (1940-2012). Nature. 2012 Dec;492(7427):42.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Wolfe MS, Selkoe DJ. Biochemistry. Intramembrane proteases--mixing oil and water. Science. 2002 Jun;296(5576):2156–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Rogina B, Helfand SL, Frankel S. Longevity regulation by Drosophila Rpd3 deacetylase and caloric restriction. Science. 2002 Nov;298(5599):1745.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Mostaço-Guidolin LB, Ko AC-T, Wang F, Xiang B, Hewko M, Tian G, et al. Collagen morphology and texture analysis: from statistics to classification. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2190.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Saksena FB. Patient Studies in Valvular, Congenital, and Rarer Forms of Cardiovascular Disease. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1
Safir MP, Wallach HS, Rizzo A “skip,” editors. Future Directions in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Karlsson H, Kontush A, James RW. Functionality of HDL: Antioxidation and Detoxifying Effects. In: von Eckardstein A, Kardassis D, editors. High Density Lipoproteins: From Biological Understanding to Clinical Exploitation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 207–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ORL.

Blog post
1
Taub B. 2,500-Year-Old Man Wrapped In Cannabis “Shroud” Discovered In Ancient Chinese Tomb [Internet]. IFLScience. 2016 Oct [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/editors-blog/2500-year-old-man-wrapped-in-cannabis-shroud-discovered-in-ancient-chinese-tomb/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Wenzel AB. Learning the culture of teaching: A middle school perspective. 2009

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Gorman J. The Power of the Bumblebee Brain. New York Times. 2017 Feb;D6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleORL
AbbreviationORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
ISSN (print)0301-1569
ISSN (online)1423-0275
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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