How to format your references using the ORL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ORL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1
Zakamska NL. H(2) emission arises outside photodissociation regions in ultraluminous infrared galaxies. Nature. 2010 May;465(7294):60–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1
Mackem S, Lewandoski M. Development. Limb cells don’t tell time. Science. 2011 May;332(6033):1038–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1
Solanki SK, Schüssler M, Fligge M. Evolution of the Sun’s large-scale magnetic field since the Maunder minimum. Nature. 2000 Nov;408(6811):445–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1
Rawat UBS, Zavialov AV, Sengupta J, Valle M, Grassucci RA, Linde J, et al. A cryo-electron microscopic study of ribosome-bound termination factor RF2. Nature. 2003 Jan;421(6918):87–90.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1
Aichinger M, Binder A. A Workout in Computational Finance. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1
Binder K. Monte Carlo Simulation in Statistical Physics: An Introduction. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1
Dundas BI. Motivic Spaces and Spectra. In: Dundas BI, Levine M, Østvær PA, Röndigs O, Voevodsky V, editors. Motivic Homotopy Theory: Lectures at a Summer School in Nordfjordeid, Norway, August 2002. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007; pp 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ORL.

Blog post
1
Hamilton K. Giant, Tubular Creature Caught On Camera Under The Sea [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Apr [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/giant-tubular-creature-under-sea/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Acquisition: Further Changes Needed in FAA’s Management and Budgeting Practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1
Black DD. Franz Liszt’s “Via Crucis”: A summation of the composer’s styles and beliefs. 2014

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1
Isherwood C. A Milkman Returns, Emotional as Ever. New York Times. 2015 Dec;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleORL
AbbreviationORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
ISSN (print)0301-1569
ISSN (online)1423-0275
ScopeOtorhinolaryngology

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