How to format your references using the ORL citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for ORL. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brown GE Jr. Surface science. How minerals react with water. Science. 2001 Oct;294(5540):67–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Makiura R, Konovalov O. Interfacial growth of large-area single-layer metal-organic framework nanosheets. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2506.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta S, Ferreira CH, Miesenböck G. FoxP influences the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision in Drosophila. Science. 2014 May;344(6186):901–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ogawa N, Hoshisashi K, Sekiguchi H, Ichiyanagi K, Matsushita Y, Hirohata Y, et al. Tracking 3D picometer-scale motions of single nanoparticles with high-energy electron probes. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peinado AM, Segura JC. Speech Recognition Over Digital Channels. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Maheshwari DK, editor. Bacteria in Agrobiology: Plant Probiotics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Barford P, Chen Y, Goyal A, Li Z, Paxson V, Yegneswaran V. Employing Honeynets For Network Situational Awareness. In: Jajodia S, Liu P, Swarup V, Wang C, editors. Cyber Situational Awareness: Issues and Research. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010; pp 71–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for ORL.

Blog post
Andrew E. Nuclear Fusion Reactions See Net Gain in Energy [Internet]. IFLScience. 2014 Feb


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Reauthorization Offers Opportunity To Address the Appropriate Federal Role. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pena H. Long-Term Effects of Post-Fire Forest Structure on Understory Vegetation in Larch Forests of the Siberian Arctic. 2017

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B. War Ends, but Divisions Remain. New York Times. 2017 Sep;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleORL
AbbreviationORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
ISSN (print)0301-1569
ISSN (online)1423-0275

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