How to format your references using the Optometry & Vision Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optometry & Vision Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bowles S. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Science 2009;324:1293–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Arnqvist G, Rowe L. Antagonistic coevolution between the sexes in a group of insects. Nature 2002;415:787–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
McAlary L, Yerbury JJ, Aquilina JA. Glutathionylation potentiates benign superoxide dismutase 1 variants to the toxic forms associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Sci Rep 2013;3:3275.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ali M, Sugimoto K, Ramadan A, Arimura G-I. Memory of plant communications for priming anti-herbivore responses. Sci Rep 2013;3:1872.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Southard TE, Marshall SD, Bonner LL. Orthodontics in the Vertical Dimension. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Emrouznejad A, Tavana M, eds. Performance Measurement with Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis. Vol 309. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Marcal PV, Fong JT, Yamagata N. A Macro Model for 3D Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites. In: Marcal PV, Yamagata N, eds. Design and Analysis of Reinforced Fiber Composites. Vol Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:67–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optometry & Vision Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Convert Human Skin Cells Directly Into Brain Cells. IFLScience October 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology Management: Improvements Needed in Strategic Planning, Performance Measurement, and Investment Management Governmentwide. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peacock C. Design science research toward designing/prototyping a repeatable model for testing location management (LM) algorithms for wireless networking. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. Graduation Rates Rise, and Bar Is Raised. New York Times. August 17, 2008:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOptometry & Vision Science
AbbreviationOptom. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1040-5488
ISSN (online)1538-9235

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