How to format your references using the Optometry & Vision Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optometry & Vision Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawrence PA. Rank injustice. Nature 2002;415:835–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wiseman RL, Kelly JW. Cell biology. Phosphatase inhibition delays translational recovery. Science 2011;332:44–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCloskey J, Nalbant SS, Steacy S. Indonesian earthquake: earthquake risk from co-seismic stress. Nature 2005;434:291.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Towers M, Mahood R, Yin Y, Tickle C. Integration of growth and specification in chick wing digit-patterning. Nature 2008;452:882–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagare DM. Electric Power Generation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Grech L, Lau A, eds. Pharmaceutical Care Issues of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: From Hospital to Community. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Salinelli E, Tomarelli F. Complessità dei sistemi dinamici non lineari: biforcazioni e caos. In: Tomarelli F, ed. Modelli Dinamici Discreti. Vol UNITEXT. Milano: Springer; 2014:129–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optometry & Vision Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. How To Make Edible Water Bottles. IFLScience May 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Social Security Statements: Observations on SSA’s Plans for the Social Security Statement. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pigott C. School Resource Officers and the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Discovering Trends of Expulsions in Public Schools. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. First, There Was Parrying With Mother. New York Times. August 30, 2000:D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOptometry & Vision Science
AbbreviationOptom. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1040-5488
ISSN (online)1538-9235

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