How to format your references using the Optometry & Vision Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optometry & Vision Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Richard TL. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure. Science 2010;329:793–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Crowley TJ, Hyde WT. Transient nature of late Pleistocene climate variability. Nature 2008;456:226–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mahadevan A, Thomas LN, Tandon A. Comment on “Eddy/wind interactions stimulate extraordinary mid-ocean plankton blooms.” Science 2008;320:448; author reply 448.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Knowles TP, Fitzpatrick AW, Meehan S, Mott HR, Vendruscolo M, Dobson CM, Welland ME. Role of intermolecular forces in defining material properties of protein nanofibrils. Science 2007;318:1900–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ersoy OK. Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Perna C, Sibillo M, eds. Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Actuarial Sciences and Finance. Milano: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Ono T. LMI-based Design. In: Zakian V, ed. Control Systems Design: A New Framework. Vol London: Springer; 2005:145–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optometry & Vision Science.

Blog post
Andrew E. First Ever Dinosaur Fossil Found In Washington State. IFLScience May 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Science: Status of the Hubble Space Telescope Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nakano AM. Community college swirlers and the transfer function. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. The Legacies They Left. New York Times. January 1, 2006:14LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOptometry & Vision Science
AbbreviationOptom. Vis. Sci.
ISSN (print)1040-5488
ISSN (online)1538-9235

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