How to format your references using the Optical Materials: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Optical Materials: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.A. Cole, ASTRONOMY: The Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud, Science. 289 (2000) 1149–1150.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.G. Duncan, A.E. Rivet, Science education. Science learning progressions, Science. 339 (2013) 396–397.
A journal article with 3 authors
K. Zaimi, A. Ishak, I. Pop, Boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a nonlinearly permeable stretching/shrinking sheet in a nanofluid, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4404.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.B. Chambliss, S.B. Khatau, N. Erdenberger, D.K. Robinson, D. Hodzic, G.D. Longmore, D. Wirtz, The LINC-anchored actin cap connects the extracellular milieu to the nucleus for ultrafast mechanotransduction, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. Levy, B. Levin, The Biostatistics of Aging, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
A. Saad, K. Dahal, M. Sarfraz, R. Roy, eds., Soft Computing in Industrial Applications: Recent Trends, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Bächle, T. Härder, The Real Performance Drivers behind XML Lock Protocols, in: S.S. Bhowmick, J. Küng, R. Wagner (Eds.), Database and Expert Systems Applications: 20th International Conference, DEXA 2009, Linz, Austria, August 31 – September 4, 2009. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 38–52.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Optical Materials: X.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Don’t Believe The Hype – We Are A Long Way From An HIV Cure, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Passenger Rail Security: Consistent Incident Reporting and Analysis Needed to Achieve Program Objectives, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Liburd-Shaddai, The experiences of remedial instructors at one urban community college: A case study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Johnson, In Every Breath, a Cancer Risk?, New York Times. (2016) D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOptical Materials: X
ISSN (print)2590-1478

Other styles