How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hedström P. Sociology. Experimental macro sociology: predicting the next best seller. Science. 2006;311(5762):786-787.
A journal article with 2 authors
McMichael AJ, Rowland-Jones SL. Cellular immune responses to HIV. Nature. 2001;410(6831):980-987.
A journal article with 3 authors
Granot J, Nakar E, Piran T. Astrophysics: refreshed shocks from a gamma-ray burst. Nature. 2003;426(6963):138-139.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li M, Guan S, Wu C, et al. From sparse to dense and from assortative to disassortative in online social networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cooper N, Forrest K, Cramp P. Essential Guide to Acute Care. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Redouté J-M. EMC of Analog Integrated Circuits. (Steyaert M, ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Faure C. Visceral Sensitivity. In: Faure C, Di Lorenzo C, Thapar N, eds. Pediatric Neurogastroenterology: Gastrointestinal Motility and Functional Disorders in Children. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013:37-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina.

Blog post
Andrew D. 24 Health “Facts” That Are Actually Wrong. IFLScience. Published May 25, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Driskill KM. A qualitative study of teacher understanding and use of differentiated instruction to promote reading achievement. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. With Memories Entrenched, a Hallowed Site Plows Forward. New York Times. August 30, 2014:SP5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
AbbreviationOphthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina
ISSN (print)2325-8160
ISSN (online)2325-8179

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