How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kabat P. Systems science for policy evaluation. Science. 2012;336(6087):1398.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wagner WR, Griffith BP. Reconstructing the lung. Science. 2010;329(5991):520-522.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rich PD, Liaw H-P, Lee AK. Place cells. Large environments reveal the statistical structure governing hippocampal representations. Science. 2014;345(6198):814-817.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gerrits T, Van Den Berg HAM, Hohlfeld J, Bär L, Rasing T. Ultrafast precessional magnetization reversal by picosecond magnetic field pulse shaping. Nature. 2002;418(6897):509-512.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hendrick J. Law and Ethics in Children’s Nursing. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Gosper M, Ifenthaler D, eds. Curriculum Models for the 21st Century: Using Learning Technologies in Higher Education. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Xie X, Li Y, Sun Y, et al. Stem Cells and Hematopoietic Cell Engineering. In: Zhao RC, ed. Stem Cells: Basics and Clinical Translation. Translational Medicine Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015:111-144.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina.

Blog post
Andrew D. Can We Use A Simple Blood Test To Detect Cancer? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. General Government Information Systems Issue Area--Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ugwu RI. Perceptions of elementary teachers from an urban school district in Southern California regarding their inquiry-based science instructional practices, assessment methods, and professional development. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. ‘Bachelor in Paradise’ Suspends Production. New York Times. June 12, 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
AbbreviationOphthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina
ISSN (print)2325-8160
ISSN (online)2325-8179

Other styles