How to format your references using the Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schröder R. The genes orthodenticle and hunchback substitute for bicoid in the beetle Tribolium. Nature. 2003;422(6932):621-625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kaser A, Blumberg RS. Cell biology: Stressful genetics in Crohn’s disease. Nature. 2014;506(7489):441-442.
A journal article with 3 authors
Serizawa T, Hamada K-I, Akashi M. Polymerization within a molecular-scale stereoregular template. Nature. 2004;429(6987):52-55.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lee R, Kermani P, Teng KK, Hempstead BL. Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins. Science. 2001;294(5548):1945-1948.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Labuszewski JW, Nyhoff JE, Co R, Peterson PE. The CME Group Risk Management Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Moritz KM. Factors Influencing Mammalian Kidney Development: Implications for Health in Adult Life. Vol 196. (Wintour-Coghlan M, Black MJ, Bertram JF, Caruana G, eds.). Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Jacobs GM, Renandya WA, Power M. Focus on Meaning. In: Renandya WA, Power M, eds. Simple, Powerful Strategies for Student Centered Learning. SpringerBriefs in Education. Springer International Publishing; 2016:29-37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina.

Blog post
Andrew E. Black Holes Prevent Star Formation In Some Galaxies By Acting Like Thermostats. IFLScience. Published August 10, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Residential Treatment Programs: Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death in Certain Programs for Troubled Youth. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cruz AA. Concordance between therapists’ self -reports and observers’ ratings of adherence to marital therapy. Published online 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rich N. Just Roll, Baby. New York Times. February 28, 2013:MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
AbbreviationOphthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina
ISSN (print)2325-8160
ISSN (online)2325-8179

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