How to format your references using the Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. Taking a risk in start-ups. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):484–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silver RA, Kanichay RT. Neuroscience. Refreshing connections. Science. 2008 Apr 11;320(5873):183–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyle WJ, Simonet WS, Lacey DL. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):337–42.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Riedl SJ, Li W, Chao Y, Schwarzenbacher R, Shi Y. Structure of the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 bound to ADP. Nature. 2005 Apr 14;434(7035):926–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Flaus J-M. Risk Analysis. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Hagen SJ, editor. The Physical Basis of Bacterial Quorum Communication. New York, NY: Springer; 2015. IX, 252 p. 75 illus., 47 illus. in color. (Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering).
A chapter in an edited book
Pettinari M, Sangiorgi C, Petretto F, Picariello F. Comparison between 2PB and 4PB Methodologies Based on the Dissipated Energy Approach. In: Scarpas A, Kringos N, Al-Qadi I, A. L, editors. 7th RILEM International Conference on Cracking in Pavements: Mechanisms, Modeling, Testing, Detection and Prevention Case Histories. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 31–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.

Blog post
Luntz S. This Is The Most Realistic Reconstruction Of A Dinosaur Ever Made [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Head Start: Comprehensive Approach to Identifying and Addressing Risks Could Help Prevent Grantee Financial Management Weaknesses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 Apr. Report No.: GAO-05-465T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nersisyan HA. Armenian American Student Perceptions of Campus Climate: Examining the Conditions That Support or Inhibit Their College Experience [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices, 5 to 4, Overturn 3 Texas Death Sentences. New York Times. 2007 Apr 26;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic & Physiological Optics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Physiol. Opt.
ISSN (print)0275-5408
ISSN (online)1475-1313
Sensory Systems

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