How to format your references using the Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones CW. Materials science. Zeolites go organic. Science. 2003 Apr 18;300(5618):439–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cymes GD, Grosman C. Tunable pKa values and the basis of opposite charge selectivities in nicotinic-type receptors. Nature. 2011 May 22;474(7352):526–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Berg E, Metlitski MA, Sachdev S. Sign-problem-free quantum Monte Carlo of the onset of antiferromagnetism in metals. Science. 2012 Dec 21;338(6114):1606–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Socolich M, Lockless SW, Russ WP, Lee H, Gardner KH, Ranganathan R. Evolutionary information for specifying a protein fold. Nature. 2005 Sep 22;437(7058):512–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Raedt LD, Frasconi P, Kersting K, Muggleton S, editors. Probabilistic Inductive Logic Programming: Theory and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. VIII, 341 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 4911).
A chapter in an edited book
Hunger SP, Conter V, Raetz EA, Valsecchi MG, Henze G. Classification and Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. In: Reaman GH, Smith FO, editors. Childhood Leukemia: A Practical Handbook. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 79–120. (Pediatric Oncology).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Extremely Elusive Monkey Population Captured On Camera For First Time. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Accessibility: Lack of Data and Limited Enforcement Options Limit Federal Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1126.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ton N-Q. A hierarchical wireless network architecture for building automation and control systems: Implementation and simulation study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Weiser B, Protess B. New Chief for U.S. Crime Division. New York Times. 2016 Oct 18;B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic & Physiological Optics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Physiol. Opt.
ISSN (print)0275-5408
ISSN (online)1475-1313
Sensory Systems

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