How to format your references using the Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Moraes M. Perspective: Lessons from Brazil. Nature. 2011 Jun 22;474(7352):S25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zelzer E, Olsen BR. The genetic basis for skeletal diseases. Nature. 2003 May 15;423(6937):343–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
von Melchner L, Pallas SL, Sur M. Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature. 2000 Apr 20;404(6780):871–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lagrange A-M, Bonnefoy M, Chauvin G, Apai D, Ehrenreich D, Boccaletti A, et al. A giant planet imaged in the disk of the young star beta Pictoris. Science. 2010 Jul 2;329(5987):57–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner K, Doroslovački M. Proportionate-Type Normalized Least Mean Square Algorithms. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Huang Y. Geo-disaster Modeling and Analysis: An SPH-based Approach. Dai Z, Zhang W, editors. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XXIV, 189 p. 130 illus., 8 illus. in color. (Springer Natural Hazards).
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards D, Deed C, Edwards A. Learning in Technologically-Mediated Spaces in Open-Plan Settings. In: Prain V, Cox P, Deed C, Edwards D, Farrelly C, Keeffe M, et al., editors. Adapting to Teaching and Learning in Open-Plan Schools. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2014. p. 79–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.

Blog post
Davis J. Researchers Create A Computer That Works Using Water. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Contract Award of the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration to the Institute for Law and Social Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Oct. Report No.: GGD-76-9.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sanghvi AM. Characterization of algal biomeal for applications in food [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cumming-Bruce N, Sengupta S. In Greece, China Finds a New Ally Against Criticism of Its Human Rights Record. New York Times. 2017 Jun 19;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic & Physiological Optics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Physiol. Opt.
ISSN (print)0275-5408
ISSN (online)1475-1313
Sensory Systems

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