How to format your references using the Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ramamurthi KS. Molecular biology. mRNA delivers the goods. Science. 2011 Feb 25;331(6020):1021–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
von Storch H, Stehr N. Climate change in perspective. Nature. 2000 Jun 8;405(6787):615.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haas J, Creamer W, Ruiz A. Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru. Nature. 2004 Dec 23;432(7020):1020–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Müller-Navarra DC, Brett MT, Park S, Chandra S, Ballantyne AP, Zorita E, et al. Unsaturated fatty acid content in seston and tropho-dynamic coupling in lakes. Nature. 2004 Jan 1;427(6969):69–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoppert M. Microscopic Techniques in Biotechnology. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Jests DV, Friedman JH, editors. Psychiatry for Neurologists. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006. (Current Clinical Neurology).
A chapter in an edited book
Kaplansky I. Integers Uniquely Represented by Certain Ternary Forms. In: Graham RL, Nešetřil J, Butler S, editors. The Mathematics of Paul Erdős I. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. p. 71–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lyme Disease: A Ticking Time Bomb. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration Faces Immediate and Long-Term Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jul. Report No.: GAO-02-971T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garapati SH. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Assembly Procedures of Steel Fulcra of Bascule Bridges [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Leading by 21 Points, Lions Cannot Hold On. New York Times. 2002 Oct 13;84.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmic & Physiological Optics
AbbreviationOphthalmic Physiol. Opt.
ISSN (print)0275-5408
ISSN (online)1475-1313
Sensory Systems

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