How to format your references using the Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Perkel, J. M. (2015). Eight ways to clean a digital library. Nature, 527(7576), 123–124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barkai, N., & Leibler, S. (2000). Circadian clocks limited by noise. Nature, 403(6767), 267–268.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti, C., Kleffe, J., & Collins, S. (2007). Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature, 445(7123), 47–52.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Acharya, U., Patel, S., Koundakjian, E., Nagashima, K., Han, X., & Acharya, J. K. (2003). Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5613), 1740–1743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Balmori, D. (2014). Drawing and Reinventing Landscape. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kielanowski, P., Bieliavsky, P., Odzijewicz, A., Schlichenmaier, M., & Voronov, T. (Eds.). (2015). Geometric Methods in Physics: XXXIII Workshop, Białowieża, Poland, June 29 – July 5, 2014. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Davison, S. G., & Sulston, K. W. (2006). Supported-Metal Catalysts. In K. W. Sulston (Ed.), Green-Function Theory of Chemisorption (pp. 75–90). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning.

Blog post
Carpineti, C. (2017, May 18). Check Out This Mesmerizing Spanish Dancer Sea Slug. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Federal Education Funding: Multiple Programs and Lack of Data Raise Efficiency and Effectiveness Concerns (T-HEHS-98-46). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al Hashimi, H. (2017). Local Measurement and Characterization via Fluorescing Materials for Phase Change Heat Transfer Applications [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, October 16). Dodgers’ Turner Delivers Decisive Final Blow in a Battle of Bullpens. New York Times, D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Perkel, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Barkai & Leibler, 2000; Perkel, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barkai & Leibler, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Acquisti et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Acharya et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleOpen Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning
AbbreviationOpen Learn.
ISSN (print)0268-0513
ISSN (online)1469-9958

Other styles