How to format your references using the Ocular Immunology & Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dragert H. Geophysics. Mediating plate convergence. Science. 2007;315(5811):471-472.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sugavaneshwar RP, Nanda KK. Uninterrupted and reusable source for the controlled growth of nanowires. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1172.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer G, Dushoff J, Yee SH. The combined effects of pathogens and predators on insect outbreaks. Nature. 2004;430(6997):341-345.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Moriyama S, Brestoff JR, Flamar A-L, et al. β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses. Science. 2018;359(6379):1056-1061.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Griffin PM, Nembhard HB, DeFlitch CJ, Bastian ND, Kang H, Muñoz DA. Healthcare Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Fernández-Manjón B, Sánchez-Pérez JM, Gómez-Pulido JA, Vega-Rodríguez MA, Bravo-Rodríguez J, eds. Computers and Education: E-Learning, From Theory to Practice. Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Sandkuhl K, Stirna J, Persson A, Wißotzki M. Elicitation Approaches in Enterprise Modeling. In: Stirna J, Persson A, Wißotzki M, eds. Enterprise Modeling: Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method. The Enterprise Engineering Series. Springer; 2014:39-51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrew E. Vacation To The Moon For $150 Million. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: The Effect of Competition From Satellite Providers on Cable Rates. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuite J. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues. Published online 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Putin Reaches Out To Vatican. New York Times. January 31, 2003:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOcular Immunology & Inflammation
AbbreviationOcul. Immunol. Inflamm.
ISSN (print)0927-3948
ISSN (online)1744-5078
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

Other styles