How to format your references using the Ocular Immunology & Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Yellen G. The voltage-gated potassium channels and their relatives. Nature. 2002;419(6902):35-42.
A journal article with 2 authors
MacInnis BL, Campenot RB. Retrograde support of neuronal survival without retrograde transport of nerve growth factor. Science. 2002;295(5559):1536-1539.
A journal article with 3 authors
Aboelella NW, Reynolds AM, Tolman WB. Biophysics. Catching copper in the act. Science. 2004;304(5672):836-837.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhang H-T, Chen Z, Vicsek T, et al. Route-dependent switch between hierarchical and egalitarian strategies in pigeon flocks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5805.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson D. TKO Hiring! Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Jung G, ed. Fluorescent Proteins II: Application of Fluorescent Protein Technology. Vol 12. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Somasundaram J, Howard P, Reed RH. Navigating the Scholarship of Integration: Insights from a Maze. In: Rossi D, Gacenga F, Danaher PA, eds. Navigating the Education Research Maze: Contextual, Conceptual, Methodological and Transformational Challenges and Opportunities for Researchers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:79-95.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation.

Blog post
Andrews R. Creationist Scientist Sues The Grand Canyon For Religious Discrimination. IFLScience. Published May 18, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities and Constraints for Expanding Use of Research Facilities at the National Bureau of Standards. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alexander BC. A descriptive study of intercollegiate athletics in Mississippi’s public community and junior colleges. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Schweber N. Driver Arrested After Bus Fatally Strikes Pedestrian. New York Times. November 4, 2015:A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOcular Immunology & Inflammation
AbbreviationOcul. Immunol. Inflamm.
ISSN (print)0927-3948
ISSN (online)1744-5078
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

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