How to format your references using the Ocular Immunology & Inflammation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kristoufek L. Fractal markets hypothesis and the global financial crisis: wavelet power evidence. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2857.
A journal article with 2 authors
Magnus D, Cho MK. Ethics. Issues in oocyte donation for stem cell research. Science. 2005;308(5729):1747-1748.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bush MB, Silman MR, Urrego DH. 48,000 years of climate and forest change in a biodiversity hot spot. Science. 2004;303(5659):827-829.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hegerl GC, Crowley TJ, Hyde WT, Frame DJ. Climate sensitivity constrained by temperature reconstructions over the past seven centuries. Nature. 2006;440(7087):1029-1032.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tardu S. Transport and Coherent Structures in Wall Turbulence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Krajewski M, ed. Services of General Interest Beyond the Single Market: External and International Law Dimensions. T.M.C. Asser Press; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ostadhassan M. Geomechanics and Elastic Anisotropy of Shale Formations. In: Jin C, Cusatis G, eds. New Frontiers in Oil and Gas Exploration. Springer International Publishing; 2016:165-207.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ocular Immunology & Inflammation.

Blog post
Hale T. People Have Already Figured Out How To Cheat At Pokémon GO. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Corrections and Pretrial Diversion Projects Funded by Grants From LEAA. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rus EL. A grant proposal for program “Tech Connect”: Bridging the generations through technology coaching. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. The Ratings for ‘Megyn Kelly Today’? Well, There’s Always Tomorrow. New York Times. October 3, 2017:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOcular Immunology & Inflammation
AbbreviationOcul. Immunol. Inflamm.
ISSN (print)0927-3948
ISSN (online)1744-5078
ScopeImmunology and Allergy

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