How to format your references using the Nutrition & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Smith MS. Change the approach to sustainable development. Nature. 2012;483:375.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Groisman A, Steinberg V. Efficient mixing at low Reynolds numbers using polymer additives. Nature. 2001;410:905–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Postma E, Griffith SC, Brooks R. Evolutionary genetics: evolution of mate choice in the wild. Nature. 2006;444:E16; discussion E16-7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. McQuatters-Gollop A, Reid PC, Edwards M, Burkill PH, Castellani C, Batten S, et al. Is there a decline in marine phytoplankton? Nature. 2011;472:E6-7; discussion E8-9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Canham J, Bennett J. Mentorship in Community Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Lopes L, Žilinskas J, Costan A, Cascella RG, Kecskemeti G, Jeannot E, et al., editors. Euro-Par 2014: Parallel Processing Workshops: Euro-Par 2014 International Workshops, Porto, Portugal, August 25-26, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brown M, Heaton S. Ko Ahau Te Awa Ko Te Awa Ko Ahau – I Am the River, and the River is me. In: Robertson M, Lawrence R, Heath G, editors. Experiencing the Outdoors: Enhancing Strategies for Wellbeing. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2015. p. 49–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition & Metabolism.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Solar Activity At Birth Could Influence Our Lifespan [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation and the Environment: Results From a Survey of the Nation’s 50 Busiest Commercial Service Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Aug. Report No.: RCED-00-222.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Farrell DP. Teachers’ Perceptions of How the Use of Peer Evaluation Could Improve Their Teaching Practice [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly D. The A List. New York Times. 2001 Feb 4;713.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition & Metabolism
AbbreviationNutr. Metab. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)1743-7075
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles