How to format your references using the Nutrition & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nutrition & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Alexander RM. Physiology. Walking made simple. Science. 2005;308:58–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Brookes JD, Carey CC. Ecology. Resilience to blooms. Science. 2011;334:46–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Liu WW, Mazor O, Wilson RI. Thermosensory processing in the Drosophila brain. Nature. 2015;519:353–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. David L, Feldman A, Mansfield E, Lehman J, Singh G. Evaluating the thermal damage resistance of graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid composite coatings. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4311.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Lalanne C. Specification Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Azziz R, editor. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Current Concepts On Pathogenesis And Clinical Care. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhan N, Wang S, Zhao H. Formal Modelling, Analysis and Verification of Hybrid Systems. In: Liu Z, Woodcock J, Zhu H, editors. Unifying Theories of Programming and Formal Engineering Methods: International Training School on Software Engineering, Held at ICTAC 2013, Shanghai, China, August 26-30, 2013, Advanced Lectures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 207–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nutrition & Metabolism.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Researchers Have Produced The Largest Virtual Universe Yet. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Funding Provided to 10 Police Departments for Intelligence Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Nov. Report No.: GGD-76-20.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kaplan CM. Understanding the Anxiolytic Effects of Alcohol on the Central Extended Amygdala in Humans [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Rothenberg B. No. 1, but Not at the Top of Their Games. New York Times. 2017 May 18;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNutrition & Metabolism
AbbreviationNutr. Metab. (Lond.)
ISSN (online)1743-7075
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Nutrition and Dietetics

Other styles