How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Stafford, Science in the digital age, Nature. 467 (2010) S19-21.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Kioussis, K. Georgopoulos, Epigenetic flexibility underlying lineage choices in the adaptive immune system, Science. 317 (2007) 620–622.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.E. Lyon, A.S. Chaine, D.W. Winkler, Ecology. A matter of timing, Science. 321 (2008) 1051–1052.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.-J. Lin, M. Kaeberlein, A.A. Andalis, L.A. Sturtz, P.-A. Defossez, V.C. Culotta, G.R. Fink, L. Guarente, Calorie restriction extends Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan by increasing respiration, Nature. 418 (2002) 344–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.K. Sarkar, M. Salazar-Palma, E.L. Mokole, Physics of Multiantenna Systems and Broadband Processing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
A. Banerjee, SystemC and SystemC-AMS in Practice: SystemC 2.3, 2.2 and SystemC-AMS 1.0, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
N.V. Banichuk, P. Neittaanmäki, Optimal Design of Beams and Plates with Uncertainties, in: P. Neittaanmäki (Ed.), Structural Optimization with Uncertainties, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010: pp. 37–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Newly-Discovered Fossils Suggest That Big Cats Originated in Asia, IFLScience. (2013).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Potential Impact of Exemptions From Transportation Control Measures, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
X. Song, A New Estimating Equation Based Approach for Secondary Trait Analyses in Genetic Case-control Studies, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D.A. Kelly, Go-To Gadgets, New York Times. (2008) SPG5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B
ISSN (print)0168-583X
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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