How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Pulverer, Signal transduction. An arresting tale, Nature. 404 (2000) 714.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Sherman, P.K. Visscher, Honeybee colonies achieve fitness through dancing, Nature. 419 (2002) 920–922.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Bali, A. Audétat, H. Keppler, Water and hydrogen are immiscible in Earth’s mantle, Nature. 495 (2013) 220–222.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.A. Lantz, H.J. Hug, R. Hoffmann, P.J. van Schendel, P. Kappenberger, S. Martin, A. Baratoff, H.J. Güntherodt, Quantitative measurement of short-range chemical bonding forces, Science. 291 (2001) 2580–2583.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F.J. Taylor, Digital Filters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
M. Desai, C. Jellis, T. Yingchoncharoen, eds., An Atlas of Mitral Valve Imaging, Springer, London, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Kinsella, J.G. Breslin, A. Passant, S. Decker, Applications of Semantic Web Methodologies and Techniques to Social Networks and Social Websites, in: C. Baroglio, P.A. Bonatti, J. Małuszyński, M. Marchiori, A. Polleres, S. Schaffert (Eds.), Reasoning Web: 4th International Summer School 2008, Venice, Italy, September 7-11, 2008, Tutorial Lectures, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 171–199.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B.

Blog post
J. Davis, Greenland’s Ice Loss Has Been Massively Underestimated, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Government Civilian Aircraft: Use of Government Aircraft by the Attorney General and FBI Director, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S.F. Mitchell, Life-review therapy: A prevention program for the elderly who are experiencing life transitions. A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, A Russian Museum Feud With Putin in the Middle, New York Times. (2013) C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B
ISSN (print)0168-583X
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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