How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.J. Leggett, Quantum liquids, Science. 319 (2008) 1203–1205.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.W. Smith, P.S. Baran, ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. As simple as [2+2], Science. 349 (2015) 925–926.
A journal article with 3 authors
I.H. Riedel-Kruse, C. Müller, A.C. Oates, Synchrony dynamics during initiation, failure, and rescue of the segmentation clock, Science. 317 (2007) 1911–1915.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
T. Toga, I. Kuraoka, S. Watanabe, E. Nakano, S. Takeuchi, C. Nishigori, K. Sugasawa, S. Iwai, Fluorescence detection of cellular nucleotide excision repair of damaged DNA, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5578.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Fleckenstein, J. Tranum-Jensen, P.S. Myschetzky, Anatomy in Diagnostic Imaging, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2014.
An edited book
R. Conti, ed., Calculus of Variations, Classical and Modern, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Dagogo-Jack, Physiological and Hormonal Factors that Influence Leptin Production, in: D.-J.M. Sam (Ed.), Leptin: Regulation and Clinical Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015: pp. 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Scientists Have Figured Out What Caused The “Alien Radio Signal” Coming From A Distant Exoplanet, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, UMTA Project Oversight and Mass Transit Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Little, The effects of a financial literacy intervention on teachers’ financial literacy, awareness, and advocacy, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
D.W. Chen, Safety Citations and Anonymous Deaths, New York Times. (2015) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, B
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B
ISSN (print)0168-583X
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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