How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.R. Cummins, The potential for giant tsunamigenic earthquakes in the northern Bay of Bengal, Nature. 449 (2007) 75–78.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.A. Warner, R. Shine, The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination in a reptile, Nature. 451 (2008) 566–568.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.A. Oye, J.C.H. Lawson, T. Bubela, Drugs: Regulate “home-brew” opiates, Nature. 521 (2015) 281–283.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Rasmussen, L. Chen, D. Deamer, D.C. Krakauer, N.H. Packard, P.F. Stadler, M.A. Bedau, Evolution. Transitions from nonliving to living matter, Science. 303 (2004) 963–965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Grotewold, J. Chappell, E.A. Kellogg, Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
J.-F. Aujol, M. Nikolova, N. Papadakis, eds., Scale Space and Variational Methods in Computer Vision: 5th International Conference, SSVM 2015, Lège-Cap Ferret, France, May 31 - June 4, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
D.I. Tapia, Ó. García, R.S. Alonso, F. Guevara, J. Catalina, R.A. Bravo, J.M. Corchado, Evaluating the n-Core Polaris Real-Time Locating System in an Indoor Environment, in: J.M.C. Rodríguez, J.B. Pérez, P. Golinska, S. Giroux, R. Corchuelo (Eds.), Trends in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 10th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How To Stop A Zombie Apocalypse – With Science, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Infrastructure: States Benefit From Block Grant Flexibility, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
D.M. Gatti, Genome-wide analysis of transcriptional regulation in the murine liver, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
I. by S. Dominus, ‘I Really Put Myself Out There,’ New York Times. (2013) MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
ISSN (print)0168-9002
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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