How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Urquhart, EUROPEAN SCIENCE: U.K. Unveils “Brain Gain” Initiative, Science. 289 (2000) 713b.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Michel-Kerjan, H. Kunreuther, Disaster management. Redesigning flood insurance, Science. 333 (2011) 408–409.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.S. Takahashi, K. Shimomura, V. Kumar, Searching for genes underlying behavior: lessons from circadian rhythms, Science. 322 (2008) 909–912.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Makeig, M. Westerfield, T.P. Jung, S. Enghoff, J. Townsend, E. Courchesne, T.J. Sejnowski, Dynamic brain sources of visual evoked responses, Science. 295 (2002) 690–694.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Summers, Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2010.
An edited book
A.J. Cohen, M. Mercandetti, B. Brazzo, eds., The Lacrimal System: Diagnosis, Management, and Surgery, Second Edition, 2nd ed. 2015, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Gold, Spatial Embedding and Spatial Context, in: K. Rothermel, D. Fritsch, W. Blochinger, F. Dürr (Eds.), Quality of Context: First International Workshop, QuaCon 2009, Stuttgart, Germany, June 25-26, 2009. Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009: pp. 53–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Harrowing Drone Footage Shows Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Adult Basic Education Program: Progress in Reducing Illiteracy and Improvements Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Jurka, The importance of being a complement: CED effects revisited, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Racer Adds a Challenge: Obesity, New York Times. (2012) B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
ISSN (print)0168-9002
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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