How to format your references using the Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Goodman, Europe attempts to promote women scientists, Nature. 426 (2003) 210–211.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Lewis, I. Tomlinson, Cancer. The utility of mouse models in post-GWAS research, Science. 338 (2012) 1301–1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
I. Belevich, M.I. Verkhovsky, M. Wikström, Proton-coupled electron transfer drives the proton pump of cytochrome c oxidase, Nature. 440 (2006) 829–832.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.V. Korennykh, P.F. Egea, A.A. Korostelev, J. Finer-Moore, C. Zhang, K.M. Shokat, R.M. Stroud, P. Walter, The unfolded protein response signals through high-order assembly of Ire1, Nature. 457 (2009) 687–693.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Horváth, Understanding Lightning and Lightning Protection, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England, 2006.
An edited book
X. Boyen, X. Chen, eds., Provable Security: 5th International Conference, ProvSec 2011, Xi’an, China, October 16-18, 2011. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Baglioni, D. Chelazzi, R. Giorgi, Cleaning of Easel Paintings, in: D. Chelazzi, R. Giorgi (Eds.), Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage: A Compendium of Materials and Techniques, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2015: pp. 83–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A.

Blog post
J. Fang, New Frog Species Discovered in New York City, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Does AFDC Workfare Work: Information Is Not Yet Available From HHS’s Demonstration Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.S. Lee, Towards an improved baton technique: The application and modification of conducting gestures drawn from the methods of Rudolf, Green and Saitö for enhanced performance of orchestral interpretations, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.S. Schmidt, Dismayed by Trump, Head of Drug Enforcement Administration Will Leave, New York Times. (2017) A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A
AbbreviationNucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A
ISSN (print)0168-9002
Nuclear and High Energy Physics

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